立場新聞 Stand News

昂山素姬是否令人失望?(上)

2017/9/7 — 20:31

資料圖片:昂山素姬

資料圖片:昂山素姬

緬甸若開邦的羅興亞人被當地政府軍報復,導致大量逃亡。這是近期的最觸目的人道災難,理應同聲譴責。昂山素姬 Aung San Suu Kyi與土耳其總統的對話(註一)沒有對施虐者譴責,備受各方質疑。(連結

對她的批評關乎緬甸的民主進程和地區穩定,需要從傳媒角度以外的資訊協助,尤其是她意指很多西方報導是假新聞。

“a lot of fake news photographs taken elsewhere in the world and not in Burma.”

廣告

英國國會的緊急質詢辯論引申了一個思考性問題。(連結

在緬甸的脆弱的民主化進程中,昂山素姬的地位十分微妙。緬北的羅興亞人問題突然急遽惡化,會否是以在打斷這條政治橋樑,令民主進程倒退?(註二)

廣告

The truth is that if Aung San Suu Kyi were removed from office and Burma’s road towards democracy were closed off, it would be a calamity not just for the Rohingya but for every Burmese citizen, so we should not support that.

馬來西亞政府的立場十分強硬,它直指昂山素姬應該出聲(註三)。

As a Nobel laureate who stood up for the principles of human rights, the international community had placed high expectation on Daw Aung San Suu Kyi to achieve national peace and reconciliation in Myanmar. It is Malaysia’s hope that she will be able to fulfil these expectations soon.

各國政府和昂山素姬提及的《顧問委員會報告》是評價昂山素姬有否堅持其民主原則的客觀性文獻。(連結

這是因為,它是昂山素姬倡議,前聯合國秘書長安南主持,緬甸官方的組織 (註四)。

The Commission is a national entity and the majority of its members are from Myanmar.

它受命於緬甸政府,目的是找出解決若開邦的困局 (註五)。

the Commission will analyse the present situation of all communities in Rakhine State, and seek to identify the factors that have resulted in violence, displacement and underdevelopment.

調查委員會在2016年9月開始運作,最後報告在今年8月發表,當中披露了一些不爭事實。

若開邦的一個三不管區,當中的羅興亞人是當今最大的一群無社會地位的人,是一人道危機(註六)。

Approximately 120,000 people are still left in camps for Internally Displaced People (IDPs)

若開邦的羅興邦人問題雖然由來已久,但其急遽惡化大約自2016年始,一批羅興亞人反政府武裝份子攻擊政府邊防軍,做成69名反政府武裝份子和17名政府軍死亡。(註七)

The security situation in Rakhine State deteriorated sharply after 9 October 2016, when armed attacks on the Border Guard Police in Maungdaw Township resulted in the loss of life of members of the security forces.

----未完,待續------

 

備註

註一

The State Counsellor discussed the issue of Rakhine State

with President TayyipErdogan of Turkey

Nay Pyi Taw, 5 September - The State CounsellorDawAung San SuuKyi received a telephone call from President Erdogan and discussed the issue of Rakhine. President Erdogan said that he is confident that DawAung San SuuKyi as a leader who has faced and overcome challenges and advocate of human rights will approach the situation with vision of a long term solution to the issue of Rakhine. He mentioned that there are concerns worldwide regarding the situation because of the news and photos that have been widely published.

The State Counsellor said that “ Weknow very well, more than most, what it means to be deprived of human rights and democratic protection. So we make sure that all the people in our country are entitled to protection of their rights as well as, the right to, and not just political but social and humanitarian defence.” The State Counsellor also said that the Government has already started defending all the people in Rakhine in the best way possible and expressed that there should be no misinformation to create trouble between the two countries which have good friendly relations for a long time.

She also intimated to President Erdogan that his Deputy Prime Minister was subjected to a lot of fake news photographs taken elsewhere in the world and not in Burma. She said, that kind of fake information which was inflicted on the Deputy Prime Minister was simply the tip of a huge iceberg of misinformation calculated to create a lot of problems between different communities and with the aim of promoting the interest of the terrorists.

She also expressed that Turkey which has faced the challenges of terrorism and has to cope with the PKK will understand the challenge that Myanmar has to face. She also said that for the country, terrorism is new but the Government will do its best to make sure that this does not expand and spread all over Rakhine.

She expressed her intention to cooperate with friends from all over the world to make sure that terrorism does not take root on Myanmar soil and said that everybody in the country is entitled to and get all the security that they need.

She also informed President Erdogan that the Government is in the process of setting up an implementation committee to carrying out the recommendations of Dr. Kofi Annan’s Commission as soon as possible in line with the reality on the ground.

The President of Turkey expresses understanding of the challenges faced by Myanmar and the willingness to maintain the good relations with Myanmar.

註二

Mark Field

 The Minister for Asia and the Pacific

  I understand the upset that the hon. Lady feels. Anyone watching the desperate scenes unfold out in Burma and Bangladesh can only be moved by them. The truth is that if Aung San Suu Kyi were removed from office and Burma’s road towards democracy were closed off, it would be a calamity not just for the Rohingya but for every Burmese citizen, so we should not support that. We must work towards getting Burma on the road to democracy as much as possible rather than trading one off against the other.

I think the hon. Lady makes an unfair interpretation of the British Government’s position. We want to do our level best with what we have in place, but we recognise that things would be even worse if there were not some semblance of democracy in the Burmese Government.

註三

STATEMENT BY THE HONOURABLE DATO’ SRI ANIFAH HAJI AMAN

FOREIGN MINISTER OF MALAYSIA

ON THE SITUATION IN RAKHINE STATE, MYANMAR

5 SEPTEMBER 2017

Malaysia is gravely concerned at the continuous violence perpetrated against the Rohingyas in the Rakhine State of Myanmar.

Despite repeated calls by ASEAN Member States for Myanmar to find a solution to the issue in a peaceful manner, Myanmar has not shown the will nor the desire to do so. Though the Myanmar Government has given its assurance to implement measures to solve the problem, the recent incidents of violence as widely reported by the media shows that little, if any, progress has been achieved.

Given these developments, Malaysia believes that the matter of sustained violence and discrimination against the Rohingyas should be elevated to a higher international forum.

As a Nobel laureate who stood up for the principles of human rights, the international community had placed high expectation on Daw Aung San Suu Kyi to achieve national peace and reconciliation in Myanmar. It is Malaysia’s hope that she will be able to fulfil these expectations soon.

The Ministry today summoned the Ambassador of Myanmar to Malaysia to express Malaysia’s displeasure on the latest situation of violence in the Rakhine State.

註四

In September 2016, following a request from Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, the State Counsellor of Myanmar, the Kofi Annan Foundation and the Office of the State Counsellor established an Advisory Commission on Rakhine State. The Commission is a national entity and the majority of its members are from Myanmar. It was mandated to examine the complex challenges facing Rakhine State and to propose responses to those challenges. Over the past twelve months, my fellow commissioners and I have travelled and consulted widely. We met with political leaders and communities across Rakhine State as well as with Government ministers and officials in Naypyitaw, with civil society and religious leaders, with Myanmar’s international and regional partners and individual experts. Those consultations are the basis for the analysis, ideas, concerns and recommendations of the final report of the Commission. The importance of our task was both underlined and complicated by the attacks on security personnel that took place in northern Rakhine State in October 2016. While those attacks, and the subsequent security operations, greatly increased tensions, they also reinforced our determination to find durable solutions to the instability and insecurity that continue to blight the prospects of Rakhine State.  

註五

(a) The mandate, structure and composition of the Rakhine Advisory Commission 

The Advisory Commission on Rakhine State, chaired by Mr Kofi Annan, was established on 5 September 2016 at the behest of Myanmar’s State Counsellor Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. According to the Commission’s Terms of Reference – agreed by the Government of Myanmar and the Kofi Annan Foundation – the Commission will analyse the present situation of all communities in Rakhine State, and seek to identify the factors that have resulted in violence, displacement and underdevelopment. In doing so, the Commission will consider humanitarian issues, living conditions, access to health, education and livelihoods, the question of citizenship and freedom of movement, and the assurance of basic rights. In accordance with established international standards, the Commission was mandated to develop recommendations within fi ve thematic areas: confl ict prevention, humanitarian assistance, reconciliation, institution building and development.

註六

On one level, Rakhine represents a development crisis. The state is marked by chronic poverty from which all communities suffer, and lags behind the national average in virtually every area. Protracted confl ict, insecure land tenure and lack of livelihood opportunities have resulted in signifi cant migration out of the state, reducing the size of the work force and undermining prospects of development and economic growth. Movement restrictions on the Muslim population hurt the economy. The failure to improve inter-communal relations, enforced segregation and the simmering threat of violence and instability continue to deter private sector investment. Although Rakhine is rich in natural resources, the development of extractive industries – such as oil and gas-related investments in Kyawkpyuh – have not generated a signifi cant number of new jobs nor other benefi ts for local residents. Both Rakhine and Muslim communities feel marginalised and disempowered by decisions taken in Naypyitaw.

Rakhine also represents a human rights crisis. While all communities have suffered from violence and abuse, protracted statelessness and profound discrimination have made the Muslim community particularly vulnerable to human rights violations. Some ten percent of the world’s stateless people live in Myanmar, and the Muslims in Rakhine constitute the single biggest stateless community in the world. The community faces a number of restrictions which affect basic rights and many aspects of their daily lives. Approximately 120,000 people are still left in camps for Internally Displaced People (IDPs). The community has been denied political representation, and is generally excluded from Myanmar’s body politic. Efforts by the Government to verify citizenship claims have failed to win the confi dence of either Muslim or Rakhine communities. 10 Towards a Peaceful, Fair and Prosperous Future for the People of Rakhine

 Finally, Rakhine is also a security crisis. As witnessed by the Commission during its many consultations across Rakhine State, all communities harbour deep-seated fears, with the legacy of the violence of 2012 fresh in many minds. While Muslims resent continued exclusion, the Rakhine community worry about becoming a minority in the state in the future. Segregation has worsened the prospects for mutual understanding. The Government has to step up its efforts to ensure that all communities feel safe and in doing so, restore inter-communal cohesion. Time alone will not heal Rakhine.

註七

The security situation in Rakhine State deteriorated sharply after 9 October 2016, when armed attacks on the Border Guard Police in Maungdaw Township resulted in the loss of life of members of the security forces. The attacks were purportedly carried out by a Muslim armed group called Harakat al-Yaqin (later renamed Arakan Rohingya Salvation Army), which, according to some analysts, has ties to Rakhine Muslim émigrés residing in Saudi Arabia.1 The group overran a security post north of Maungdaw Town, seizing weapons and ammunition. During the subsequent military and police operation, violence and destruction of private property led to a signifi cant number of Muslims fl eeing across the border to Bangladesh. Some members of the Rakhine community were also forced to fl ee. Violence seemed to peak in mid-November, when clashes allegedly left 69 insurgents and 17 security forces dead.  

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