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歐洲各國政府 正助長利比亞使人受苦的生意

2017/9/12 — 16:51

被關在拘留中心的人們並不曉得自己何時能獲釋。© Guillaume Binet/Myop

被關在拘留中心的人們並不曉得自己何時能獲釋。© Guillaume Binet/Myop

致歐洲各國政府:

身處利比亞的移民和難民現正經歷的處境,應該會震撼歐洲民眾和各民選領袖的良知。

一心想要把移民和難民隔絕於歐洲之外,這目標令歐洲各國變得盲目。歐洲的撥款正協助阻止船艇駛離利比亞水域,但此政策卻同時助長一個虐待人們的不法系統。

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利比亞拘留移民和難民的系統敗壞透頂,應該名副其實地命名它:是一盤綁架、施加酷刑和敲詐錢財的興旺生意。而歐洲政府卻選擇把人們困於這種處境之中。人們不應被遣返到利比亞,也不應被困於那裡。

無國界醫生在利比亞的黎波里的拘留中心,協助被扣押人士已超過一年。我們親眼目睹男人、婦女和孩子們在這些中心內所面對的苦難──任意拘留、敲詐錢財、身體虐待,並遭剝奪獲得基本服務的機會。

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在利比亞的黎波里一個拘留所,拘留人士被關在狹小的房間裡。© Guillaume Binet/Myop

在利比亞的黎波里一個拘留所,拘留人士被關在狹小的房間裡。© Guillaume Binet/Myop

我在上周到訪過多個官方拘留中心,而我們知道這些官方拘留中心只是問題的冰山一角。

人們基本上只被看待成可被剝削的貨物。他們被關在黑暗、骯髒、沒有通風系統的房間裡,在極度擁擠的環境中棲身。有男人告訴我們,他們是如何被迫在庭院中裸跑,直至體力不支倒下。女人則遭強姦,然後被要求致電家人,問他們要錢以獲釋。我在這裡遇到的所有人,眼眶都含著淚水,一而再地請求讓他們離開。他們都絕望至極。

有些人認為目前從利比亞海岸離開的人數減少,代表著成功防止了人們命喪大海和打擊了人蛇集團。

但只要了解利比亞國內現時情況的人,都會知道那些把離開利比亞海岸人數減少稱許為成功的言論,只是單純的虛偽,甚至可說是合謀參與有組織的經營,把人們淪為人口販運者手中的貨物。

在利比亞其中一間拘留所,懷疑感染愛滋病病毒、結核病或其他傳染病的拘留人士被關在隔離區。© Guillaume Binet/Myop

在利比亞其中一間拘留所,懷疑感染愛滋病病毒、結核病或其他傳染病的拘留人士被關在隔離區。© Guillaume Binet/Myop

人們被困在利比亞這些如惡夢般可怕環境的情況已有大量記實材料描述過,而這些人都需要一條出路。他們需要獲得保護、庇護,以及更多接觸到自願遣返程序的機會。他們需要安全和合法的渠道,以便能逃難到安全的地方,但至今,只有極小部分的人能獲此機會。

對移民和難民極其可怕的暴力對待,必須停止,他們的人權必須獲得基本尊重,包括獲得足夠食物、食水和醫療護理的權利。

儘管多國政府宣稱需要改善人們目前的境況,但有關改善至今仍未出現。

政客們不但沒有正視由自己的政策一手促成的惡性循環,還對嘗試救起遇險人們的非政府組織和人士作出失實指控,以此作為擋箭牌。無國界醫生在其海上的搜救行動中,曾遭受歐盟資助的利比亞海岸衛隊射擊,亦被反覆指控與人口販運者勾結。但到底現在是誰與罪犯們共謀?是那些嘗試救人的人,還是那些容許人們被當作貨物般擠在一起和販賣出去的人?

利比亞只是最近期和極端的例子,顯示出歐盟移民政策的後果。這政策數年前訂定,其主要目的是把人們推離視線範圍。歐盟與土耳其在2016年簽訂的協議,以及我們在希臘、法國、巴爾幹半島等地所見的情況,都顯示出關閉邊境和推趕人們已漸成趨勢。

這些政策的後果是令尋求安全和合法途徑前往歐洲的人別無選擇,把他們一步一步推往人蛇集團的網絡,而這些網絡正是歐洲領袖信誓旦旦要剷除的。提供安全和合法的途徑予人們跨境,是唯一的方法去除令蛇頭和人口販運者活躍的不合理誘因,同時亦能兼顧邊境管制的目的。

我們不能說我們不知道這些事情正在發生。蛇頭和人口販運者透過人們苦難圖利的做法,和被困者可怖的痛苦經歷,都必須停止。

容讓人們被強姦、施以酷刑和被罪犯販賣為奴,是不是歐洲政府為求遏止移民和難民入境,而願意付出的代價?

 

無國界醫生(國際)主席

廖滿嫦 謹啟

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在利比亞其中一間只拘留女人的拘留中心內,房間過份擁擠,令部分拘留人士需睡在洗水間的地板上。© Guillaume Binet/Myop

在利比亞其中一間只拘留女人的拘留中心內,房間過份擁擠,令部分拘留人士需睡在洗水間的地板上。© Guillaume Binet/Myop

European governments are feeding Libya’s business of suffering

Dear European Governments,

What migrants and refugees are living in Libya should shock the collective conscience of Europe’s citizens and elected leaders.

Blinded by the single-minded goal of keeping people outside of Europe, European funding is helping to stop the boats from departing Libyan waters, but this policy is also feeding a criminal system of abuse.

The detention of migrants and refugees in Libya is rotten to the core.  It must be named for what it is: a thriving enterprise of kidnapping, torture and extortion. And European governments have chosen to contain people in this situation. People cannot be sent back to Libya, nor should they be contained there.

MSF has assisted people in Libyan detention centres in Tripoli for over a year, and has witnessed first-hand the scheme of arbitrary detention, extortion, physical abuse and deprivation of basic services that men, women and children suffer in these centres.

I visited a number of official detention centres last week and we know that these official detention centres are just the tip of the iceberg.

People are simply treated as a commodity to be exploited. They are packed into dark, filthy rooms with no ventilation, living on top of one another. Men told us how groups of them are forced to run naked in the courtyard until they collapse from exhaustion. Women are raped and then made to call their families back home asking for money to be freed. All the people I met had tears in their eyes, asking again and again, to get out. Their despair is overwhelming.

The reduced numbers of people leaving Libyan shores has been lauded by some as a success in preventing loss of life at sea, and smashing smugglers’ networks.

But with the knowledge of what is happening in Libya, that this should be lauded as a success demonstrates, at best, pure hypocrisy and at worse, a cynical complicity in the organised business of reducing human beings to merchandise in human traffickers’ hands. 

The people trapped in these well-documented, nightmarish conditions in Libya need a way out. They need access to protection, asylum and increased voluntary repatriation procedures. They need an escape to safety via safe and legal passage, but to date, only a tiny fraction of people have been able to access this.

This horrific violence against them must stop; there needs to be a basic respect for their human rights including access to sufficient food, water and medical care.

Despite declarations by governments that improvements need to be made to peoples’ immediate conditions, this is far from happening today.

Instead of confronting the vicious cycle that their own policies are creating, politicians have hidden behind unfounded accusations towards NGOs and individuals who attempt to help people in dire straits.  During its Search and Rescue operations at sea, MSF has been shot at by the European-funded Libyan coast guard and repeatedly accused of collusion with traffickers. But who is colluding with criminals here? Those seeking to rescue people, or those enabling people to be treated like a commodity to be packed and sold?

Libya is just the most recent and extreme example of European migration policies which go back several years, where a primary objective is to push people out of sight. The EU-Turkey deal from 2016, what we have seen in Greece, in France, in the Balkans and beyond, are a growing trend of border closures and push backs.

What this does is close options for people who seek safe and legal ways of coming to Europe and pushes them further and further into the smugglers’ networks, which European leaders insist they want to dismantle. Safe and legal avenues for people to cross borders are the only way to eliminate the perverse incentives that allow for smugglers and traffickers to thrive whilst at the same time fulfilling border control objectives.

We cannot say that we did not know that this was happening. The predation on misery and the horrific suffering of those trapped must end now.

In their efforts to stem the flow, is allowing people to be pushed into rape, torture and slavery via criminal pay offs a price European governments are willing to pay?

 

Sincerely,

Joanne Liu

International President

Médecins Sans Frontières  

 

 

 

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