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英國給香港本土的啟示

2018/5/9 — 21:31

Jeremy Corbyn l Garry Knight @ flickr — Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0)

Jeremy Corbyn l Garry Knight @ flickr — Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0)

下議院在4月17日的一場歷時2小時半的辯論改變了英國工黨的命運。它是英國國會第一次辯論反猶太運動。 由於工黨在反對反猶太人運動上被指不力,它在5月4日的倫敦北的尼特區倫敦自治市議會補選中失利。尼特區是英國猶太人的最大聚居點。工黨魁郝爾賓(Jeremy Corbyn)和其青年團Momentum 受著巨大壓力。

起因

事件的近因是工黨的元老級下議院議院、前任倫敦市長肯·李文斯頓(Ken Livingstone )說:“希特勒早期是支持猶太人的,他曾是猶太復國主義者。”

廣告

香港

香港泛民目前面對兩個深水炸彈,一是街工勞工組,二是搶手機事件。筆者的觀察是:一,無論事件起因如何,道理如何,其事後發酵受著有系統的操控;二,差不多在任何的情景下,這兩個議席將送給建制派。

廣告

英國社運大概是香港的先行者,它給香港一定啟示。

政黨的棘手問題

工黨作為英國左翼政黨,群眾性組織,是英國社運份子的大溶爐。由於它有反建制色彩,與香港的泛民政黨有一定類似。它受著黨內不同派別的衝擊,尤其是其新一代,它的政治定位比保守黨困難(註三)。

辭職

工黨面對如何處分其黨員的考驗,因為,無論黨外和黨內都有要求革除肯·李文斯頓 的聲音(註四)。

工黨

工黨不單被指控包庇反猶太運動的老黨員,它還被指部份黨團組織反猶太運動,在其青年團中攻擊和威嚇猶太裔參加者。香港沒有反猶太運動問題,但香港有匿名攻擊、網上打飛機、圍剿異見者、歪曲歷史、仇恨犯罪等問題。

Momentum

工黨的最有朝氣的青年組織Momentum 一直以來受著外界、工黨內保守派和反郝爾賓派的圍剿。它在今次辯論中被指與反猶太運動有關。郝爾賓被指靠Momentum 撐腰,縱容和包庇黨員。也有指,有人以Momentum 名義在網上煽風點火(註六)。

社交媒體

社交媒體是是非之地,香港人應逐漸習慣。這些網絡革命軍在外國更加厲害,近有的是俄羅斯利用臉書影響美國大選和英國仇恨運動的網上欺凌。

有議員認為:“Facebook和Twitter已經成為社交網絡化糞池,不間斷地收集令人厭惡的和反猶太言論的地方。它成了這類隱蔽運動的新工具”他們指出,這不能與言論自由扯在一起(註七)。

網上打飛機

英國的網上打飛機比香港的更大。我們在大是大非的場白都看到網上打飛機,但大都只有幾十人,只是不停重複又重複。我們在薯片參選中看得最多。在英國可以有2千個自稱工黨黨員的出來,聲稱聲援黨魁郝爾賓,實質是宣揚其政治目的(註8)。

匿名攻擊

匿名出帖是社交媒體的特性,而事實上,很多所謂具名戶口是假冒的。惡意攻擊是杜不絕的。英國議員要求社交媒體公司在內部進行監控和封鎖惡意用戶(註9)。

校院區

香港的大學區被指播毒。大學自論開放,容易被各方利用。哈佛校長告訴新生:“教育的目標是確保學生能辨別有人在胡說八道。”這與傳統的說法,求真理,有微妙分別。哈佛校長的說法更有現實意義。

英國國議指出,英國的猶太裔學生感到校園生活更加不舒服,校院內的仇恨言論更加活躍,更易傳播(註10)。

應該理解,真實現象未必如是。這是大聲的雛鳥吃得最多的道理。

極左與極右

雖然今次辯論是反猶太運動,其實是針對仇恨言論,或極端言論。當中很難拿捏。激進言論確是人類文明的基石,地圓學說就是例子;但也有必須譴責的三K黨學說,不能一概而論,也沒有“我不同意你的說法,但我誓死捍衛你發言的權利。”

在英國,極左和極右很多時走在一起。當然,這是每個參與者的個人決擇(註11)。

Luciana Berger (下議院議員、利物浦選區) (工黨及合作黨)

在這次辯論中,工黨及合作黨議員盧西安娜·貝加受到熱烈鼓掌。她從18歲開始就積極參與平權運動,與反猶太運動抗爭,受盡迫害。她的故事在英國家喻戶曉。2013年有4名反猶太運動份子侵擾她。3人因此入獄。

來自美國的一個極右組織對她報復,一夜之間,她受到2500則色情、反猶太、暴力威嚇的網絡洗版(註12)。

她支持清黨,開除肯·李文斯頓。

圍剿異見者

網絡革命軍的成份十分複雜,很難清楚是支持者還是靠害,是真心還是假意。但它對政治人物的影響常常有效。不少發言的議員表示曾有此慘痛經驗,受過網絡圍剿。

這些網絡圍剿者常常針對敢言的反猶太運動的工黨議員(註13)。可能是這原故,我們在香港的,無論是在雨傘運動裡還是其他場合,很少看到議員清楚地表達其看法或憂慮。

歪曲歷史

有議員指出,仇恨犯罪的推手為達到目的,首先是歪曲歷史。反猶太運動者首先攻擊受納粹黨人迫害的英雄式人物安妮·弗蘭克。安妮的日記已經是一部經典。他們攻擊大屠殺倖存的安妮的父親是一貪婪小人,捏造安妮手稿(註14)。

仇恨犯罪

仇恨犯罪在西方法典已納入為犯罪。在英國,近年的仇恨犯罪率急升3成。當中有88 宗針對猶太學校,有一半發生在學童回家的路上。

有一宗的受害者向巴士司機求救,但不受理。受害者一路被追打直至他進入一家商店求助。

網絡的仇恨犯罪更嚴重。有人甚至利用網絡起底,標籤弱者。仇恨犯罪者有人編制 Apps 組織同道,尋找獵物(註15)。

政治領袖角色

發起這場辯論的是新上任的薩吉德·賈偉德。他在4月30日被任命為內務大臣,接管因「疾風世代」移民事件而辭職的盧綺婷職務。(資料來源

薩吉德·賈偉德作總結陳辭:“作為政治領袖,責任用一切方法,譴責仇恨犯罪,不應猶豫不決。------猶太復國主義並不是一種言語侮辱。它不只是口號,它是種族主義和帝國主義的代號。它不是只說猶太人的處事令人反感。 它代表仇恨犯罪者的信念,以此吸引信徒。 當政治人物看不到這一點時,他們就是幫凶,因為反猶太運動者利用它來掩蓋其不公義的根源,並把犯罪責任推給那些最受壓迫的人(註16)。

好憐憫

七十年代的青年激進化運動的根源是同情弱勢,濟弱扶傾。其支持對象和理論基礎是站在社會基層的一面。除著工人運動式微,個人主義抬頭,社會運動口號出現了個人訴求,沒有特定的社會對象。雨傘運動在表面上是爭普選,但其迅速轉入反新移民運動,單是這一點,就值得討論。

筆者認為,所有的社會運動都有階級基礎,不可能有一個長久的全人類運動。反左膠學說本身是一種仇恨運動,因為左膠只是一個標籤,並沒具體內容。

有青年朋友問我有關未來的做法。我答:“這條路必須由你們找出來。”筆者估計,新一輪的運動應以“好憐憫”作開始。

 

 

附錄

以下所有以” – “ 起頭的都是今次辯論的議員發言。

註一

The Conservatives have won control of Barnet Council in north London after Labour was punished by voters for the antisemitism controversy.

Barnet, which has one of the UK's largest Jewish populations, was a key target for Jeremy Corbyn's party in the local elections.

Labour was widely expected to win the borough for the first time since the local authority was created in 1964.

註二

-This debate is about a prejudice with a long past, an all-too-lively present and a future that is for us to determine. This is the first general debate on anti-Semitism that we have had in this House.

-“Rightly or wrongly, those who push this offensive material regard Jeremy Corbyn as their figurehead.”

-Ken Livingstone claimed that Hitler was a Zionist. That is anti-Semitism, pure and simple. It happened more than two years ago, and there has been ample time to deal with it, so it is a disgrace that it has not been dealt with. Kick him out immediately.

註三

-Anti-Semitism can be found in both extremes of the political spectrum, far right and far left. The British public has a strong record of keeping those fringes out of major parties and out of this Chamber, but although I would much rather that this issue transcended party politics, as other forms of racism have for a long time, we cannot and must not ignore the particular concern with elements within the Labour party, and nor can we ignore the fact that this increasing concern is correlating with the current Leader of the Opposition and the waves of activists that have come with him.

註四

-And my party. My party urgently needs to address this issue publicly and consistently, and we need to expel from our ranks those people who hold these views, including Ken Livingstone.

註五

-People—young Jewish members—are scared to go to a Labour party meeting with me, because they are fearful that they will be intimidated and threatened and that their identity will be challenged. Any Jewish person is entitled to say that they are, to define themselves as, an anti-Zionist, or a non-Zionist, and I have no right to challenge them. Any Jewish person, as the vast majority do, is entitled to say, “I am a Zionist,” and I have no right to deny them that. Those that do are racists. Just a change in language—in the use of the word “Zionist” as a pejorative insult—by the Labour party would alter the dialogue in this country in a very big way.

註六

-It is particularly alarming and shocking to hear about what is happening in the party opposite, with Momentum and the hard left now out there perpetrating awful comments and actually celebrating and cheering some of the comments that they are putting out. I pay tribute to the Labour Members who have stood up to anti-Semitism in their party. We must all stand shoulder to shoulder with them. The hard left’s hatred and intolerance for those with different opinions has gone much too far.

-I completely agree, but I have also seen such things from other groups. I have just seen a tweet from someone claiming to be a member of Momentum suggesting that those of us who have spoken out about anti-Semitism have taken a bounty of £1 million from Israel to undermine the leader of the Labour party. That absurdity must be rooted out, too.

-I did not expect today, when Labour Members stand in solidarity with our Jewish colleagues and with the Jewish community, not just no solidarity but to be targeted by an organisation called Momentum, which has happened to all of us who stood in solidarity. But worse than that, there is explicit targeting of Jewish members of the parliamentary Labour party because they are Jewish. That is what is going on at the moment.

註七

-The second problem is social media. As Front Benchers and shadow Front Benchers have highlighted, the internet has become a sewer for anti-Semitism. We spend so much time worrying about Facebook collecting our data for advertisements, but Facebook and Twitter have become social networks acting as a septic tank in which a disgusting and non-stop stream of anti-Semitic sewage collects. What is even worse is that when someone is a victim of anti-Semitism on social media sites, the duty is on them to get it corrected and not the other way round. Why are books and newspapers rightly punished for the publication of any kind of anti-Semitic content, but social media platforms act with impunity? They should be subject to the same laws as everybody else.

-As it has in the past, anti-Semitism has mutated into different forms and found different outlets. Yes, it lingers in the poisonous rantings of the extreme right, but there can be no doubt that it has been given a new lease of life by radical Islamism and the militant anti-Zionism of the radical left. It has been given a powerful new platform by social media.

註八

-Perhaps just as depressing, however, was the letter published on Facebook and backed by 2,000 Labour supporters which sought to defend the Leader of the Opposition from what it described as“a very powerful special interest group mobilising its apparent… strength against you.”

-Those 2,000 people resorted to an obvious anti-Semitic trope in their attempt to defend their leader from the allegation that he was not taking anti-Semitism seriously enough.

註九

- On the issue of online abuse, I believe that more can be done to make Facebook, Twitter and all the online companies take down both anti-Semitic abuse and other abuse more quickly. I believe that we have to look at the issue of online anonymity. It is because people are anonymous and because of online growth that people say things online to members of the Jewish community and others that they would never say if they actually had to put their name out there. I believe that people should continue to be able to post anonymously, but the companies—Twitter, Google and so on—should consider holding people’s names and addresses.

註十

-Does my hon. Friend share my concern that we are seeing a particularly sharp increase in anti-Semitism on university campuses? Does he agree that Jewish and Israeli students should absolutely never be made to feel unwelcome in their learning environments?

-However, anti-Semitism is often overt and is too often propagated in student societies at our universities, which was why the then Universities Minister, my hon. Friend the Member for Orpington (Joseph Johnson), had to increase funding to deal with the problem only last year.

註十一

-My hon. Friend is rightly focusing on the dangers of anti-Semitism and the nefarious activities of the far right, but does he not accept that anti-Semitism is one of those areas of public debate where the far left meets the far right, and that if the far left continues to behave in this way, there is a real danger of inciting further hatred and violence against one of our most vulnerable communities?

註12

-In total, four people have been convicted since 2013 for the anti-Semitic abuse and harassment they have directed towards me. Three of those were imprisoned; they were of a far right persuasion, including a member of the now proscribed National Action organisation. In the wake of one of those convictions, a far right website in the United States initiated the #filthyjewbitch campaign, which the police said resulted in me receiving over 2,500 violent, pornographic and extreme anti-Semitic messages in just one day alone. There is currently one more person on remand, having made threats to my life because of my faith.

-And my party. My party urgently needs to address this issue publicly and consistently, and we need to expel from our ranks those people who hold these views, including Ken Livingstone.

註13

-I have been the target of a campaign of abuse, attempted bullying and intimidation from people who would dare to tell me that people like me have no place in the party of which I have been a member for over 20 years, and which I am proud to represent on these Benches.

-I can understand that acknowledging these facts is not an easy thing to do. The easy thing to do is to displace responsibility by bashing the media or blaming Tory attacks, or worse, as some activists have been doing, intimidating those Labour MPs who have taken a clear stand against anti-Semitism.

註14

-In some ways, this type of explicit anti-Semitism is easier to recognise and to tackle head on—the hate preachers, the extremist mosques, and far-right and far-left groups—but much more of it is oblique. A search on Google produces more than half a million hits for “holocaust hoax”. Thousands more pages tell people that a greedy Otto Frank forged his daughter’s diary in a cunning scheme to try to make some money.

奧托·弗蘭克全名奧托·海因里希·「皮姆」·弗蘭克生於德國法蘭克福,猶太人,瑞士商人。他是安妮·弗蘭克和瑪戈·弗蘭克的父親。作為他家在大屠殺之後唯一倖存的成員,他繼承了安妮的日記手稿,並安排了該日記的出版。

註15

this year’s CST report found that hate incidents have reached a record level in the UK, including a 34% increase in the number of violent anti-Semitic assaults. In last year’s statistics, where it could be determined, 63% of incidents were described as being far right in motivation, 6% were described as being Islamist in motivation, and 30% showed anti-Israel motivation.

The CST reports that 88 incidents targeted Jewish schools, schoolchildren or staff, with 50% of those incidents taking place as Jewish schoolchildren made their journeys to or from school. In one incident, fireworks were thrown at visibly Jewish people in public in November; in another, Jewish schoolchildren were hit, kicked and punched on the bus home, but were ignored by the driver when they tried to get help—the children fled the bus at the next stop but were followed, and found safety only after they entered a kosher shop and asked for help

We have seen the debate change since 2016, with triple parentheses to identify individuals being employed as an online dog whistle to single out targets by white nationalists, neo-Nazis, anti-Semites and those who share their views. Each of the three parenthesis represents anti-Semitic claims of Jewish involvement in mass media, mass immigration and global Zionism. These people even developed an app to help them to better co-ordinate and target individuals. Earlier this year, the CST reported that online abuse had fallen slightly from last year, in part due to improvements in the policies adopted by social media companies and better reporting, but anyone who uses social media can see that this remains a very serious problem.

註16

We have to ensure that community leaders and political leaders do everything possible to condemn anti-Semitism in every form it takes without hesitation or equivocation. Leadership has to set an example. We have to do more to support the Holocaust Educational Trust—I have been to Auschwitz with it—and to train teachers. We need to ensure that university campuses are welcoming environments for students of all backgrounds. The Office for Students should play a role, as the APPG against anti-Semitism recommends. The Government must go further in stamping out all extremist terror groups, including proscribing Hezbollah’s political arm. People should not be allowed to march down Trafalgar Square and Whitehall waving Hezbollah flags.

I want to make this clear in my closing remarks: Zionism is not an insult. It is not a catchphrase, a code word for racism or imperialism, or a name for unpleasant things done by Jews. It stands for a huge range of beliefs and believers. When we fail to recognise this, we assist those on the extremes as they use anti-Semitism to cover up the roots of injustice and shift the blame on to those who are most oppressed.

And where it is clearly a cover for anti-Semitism, we have to call that out—let us be clear about that. But criticism of the Israeli Government, just like criticism of the British Government, is absolutely crucial, because that is part of our democratic process.

發表意見