立場新聞 Stand News

【有片】朱凱廸落區反一地兩檢 遭親中叔伯包圍

2017/8/10 — 20:38

朝雲 Facebook 片段截圖

朝雲 Facebook 片段截圖

8/8 天水圍

朱凱廸落區反一地兩檢,遭親中叔伯包圍

一地兩檢 ≠ 外國領事館;外交豁免權 ≠ 司法管轄權

* * *

立法會議員朱凱廸巡迴各地,解釋並反對一地兩檢,最近一站在天水圍。

廣告

甫到現場,爭拗已起,筆者負責火上加油。肇因片中老伯,聲稱一地兩檢等同外國領事館,並藉此質問朱凱廸。

筆者接續發言,解釋外國使領館享有「外交豁免權」,不同於一地兩檢放棄「司法管轄權」。惟一眾叔伯似乎不服,指罵朱凱廸一行人「收錢」、「漢奸」、「港獨」。

廣告

將一地兩檢比擬為領事館,最早似源自湯家驊。

但看維也納公約*,便知此說不確。

(註:goo.gl/zrAaF8

「(f) acting as notary and civil registrar and in capacities of a similar kind, and performing certain functions of an administrative nature, provided that there is nothing contrary thereto in the laws and regulations of the receiving State;」

「(g) safeguarding the interests of nationals, both individuals and bodies corporate, of the sending States in cases of succession mortis causa in the territory of the receiving State, in accordance with the laws and regulations of the receiving State;」

「(m) performing any other functions entrusted to a consular post by the sending State which are not prohibited by the laws and regulations of the receiving State or to which no objection is taken by the receiving State or which are referred to in the international agreements in force between the sending State and the receiving State.」

公約已三令五申,清楚交代,外交人員執行職務(Consular functions),應遵守當地法律,不得抵觸。

因外交人員是國家代表,享有一系列「外交豁免權」,保障使領館的安全和人身自由。即使有違當地法律,仍可免遭拘捕、羈留、出庭作供等:

「Consular officers and consular employees shall not be amenable to the jurisdiction of the judicial or administrative authorities of the receiving State in respect of acts performed in the exercise of consular functions.」

「Consular officers shall not be liable to arrest or detention pending trial, except in the case of a grave crime and pursuant to a decision by the competent judicial authority.」

惟豁免權的前提,是忠實履行 consular functions。如犯重罪,仍有可能被捕起訴。

Article 55 再次點明,使領館須「Respect for the laws and regulations of the receiving State」:

「1. Without prejudice to their privileges and immunities, it is the duty of all persons enjoying such privileges and immunities to respect the laws and regulations of the receiving State. They also have a duty not to interfere in the internal affairs of the State.

2. The consular premises shall not be used in any manner incompatible with the exercise of consular functions.」

總括而言,「外交豁免權」是一種被動的保護權,讓使領館保護到自己及當地僑民,還有申請庇護的人物,如昔年方勵之、晚近阿桑奇等。但不等於使領館是「國中之國」,可以行使該國法律,加予當地人民。

好簡單,假如你在英國領事館俾一個鬼佬打--你梗係報警喇。即使該鬼佬可能有外交身份,最終驅逐出境了事。但你由始至終仍在本地,仍受本地法律保護。

但根據政府方案,一地兩檢根本不同於使領館。

使領館人員無權捉你;但車站的公安可以捉你,而你求助無門。因為香港徹底放棄了「司法管轄權」,交由中國統治。

若要勉強比較,練乙錚先生的例子更恰當,即近代中史書常見的租界。列強於租界內全面行使「領事裁判權」和「治外法權」。宋教仁在上海被殺,但嫌犯在租界被捕,由領事主審,及後才移交中方。

一地兩檢與上述情況更加類同。是否「喪權辱港」,交由看官自行斷論。

 

作者 facebook

發表意見