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破解:可樂一小時奇遇記

2015/8/10 — 17:48

Chris Nielsen / flickr

Chris Nielsen / flickr

夏日炎炎,隨手在雪櫃拿起一罐可樂解暑。

才喝了一口,就無意翻到一篇解密可樂的報道。立馬就將口中可樂噴出——可樂真的這麼「毒」?!報章報道了,那必然是真的了。但經多番思量後,其實自己也沒有感受到這些副作用,開始懷疑文章或誇張了喝可樂的「後遺症」。

What happens one hour after drinking a can of coke. /  therenegadepharmacist.com

What happens one hour after drinking a can of coke. / therenegadepharmacist.com

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果然,經過連番查證後,原來這個新聞和可樂殺精一樣是一個流言。報道中引述的 Infographic 資料說得太誇張了。

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甜到嘔?

10 teaspoons of sugar hit your system. (100% of your recommended daily intake.) You don’t immediately vomit from the overwhelming sweetness because phosphoric acid cuts the flavor allowing you to keep it down.

無可否認,可口可樂含糖量遠超建議攝取量(所以也是少喝為妙)。但說到因為可口可樂加了磷酸 (Phosphoric Acid),所以當飲用高糖分的可樂時會引起的作嘔感,根本是無稽之談。市面有不少飲品,​例如果汁產品比可口可樂糖分較高,而且不含磷酸作「壓抑」作用,難道會令你作嘔嗎?另外,除非可樂是「苦」的,否則基本上不會引起作嘔。

胰島素導致脂肪增加?

20 minutes in: Your blood sugar spikes, causing an insulin burst. Your liver responds to this by turning any sugar it can get its hands on into fat. (There’s plenty of that at this particular moment)

這個要還胰島素一個公道。當身體攝取葡萄糖 (glucose) 時,體內的胰島素 (Insulin) 的確會霎時間增加。但飲用可口可樂而攝取的不僅是葡萄糖,還有果糖 (fructose)。葡萄糖大多會被直接被細胞吸收轉為能量,但果糖則會被肝臟吸收變為脂肪。所以引致脂肪增加的並不是胰島素增加,而是肝臟處理的果糖。雖然水果都含果糖,但同時亦擁有很多營養,所以均衡飲食新鮮水果並不會影響健康。

邪惡的咖啡因?

40 minutes: Caffeine absorption is complete. Your pupils dilate, your bloodpressure rises, as a response your livers dumps more sugar into your bloodstream. The adenosine receptors in your brain are now blocked preventing drowsiness.

瞳孔放大、血壓增加,聽起來好不嚇人。咖啡因 (Caffeine) 的確會影響腺苷受體 (Adenosine Receptors),減少昏睡感覺。但其他副作用就要視乎攝取的咖啡因劑量有多少(咖啡或者茶含有的咖啡因含量普遍比可樂高),以及你咖啡因攝取習慣。因為人對咖啡因會產生抗藥性,還記得你第一次喝咖啡嗎?精神立即飽滿,但隨著養成喝咖啡的習慣,相對效果亦都減少。

喝可樂如同吸毒?

45 minutes: Your body ups your dopamine production stimulating the pleasure centers of your brain. This is physically the same way heroin works, by the way.

的確,攝取糖分會增加多巴胺 (Dopamine) 分泌,令人感到愉悅,但問題是將這個現象和吸毒比較就有點離譜了。不單是劑量不同,而效果亦差得遠,而且性交高潮時也會造成大腦呈現類似的「興奮感覺」

咖啡因引致脫水?

60 minutes: The caffeine's diuretic properties come into play. (It makes you have to pee.) It is now assured that you'll evacuate the bonded calcium, magnesium and zinc that was headed to your bones as well as sodium, electrolyte and water.

The phosphoric acid binds calcium, magnesium and zinc in our lower intestine, providing a further boost in metabolism. This is compounded by high doses of sugar and artificial sweeteners also increasing the urinary excretion of calcium.

As the rave inside of you dies down you'll start to have a sugar crash. You may become irritable and/or sluggish. You've also now, literally, pissed away all the water that was in the Coke. But not before infusing it with valuable nutrients your body could have used for things like even having the ability to hydrate your system or build strong bones and teeth.

雖然咖啡因有利尿作用,但事實上並沒有證據指身體會因飲用含咖啡因產品而出現脫水現象。同時地,儘管有部分研究指日常攝取的咖啡因或增加女性骨質疏鬆的風險(奇怪的是男性有相反的效果——減少骨質疏鬆風險)。但可以肯定的是,偶爾一罐可樂的咖啡因並不足以導致骨內的礦物質經排泄流失。

可樂一定不是有益健康的飲品,因為其糖分實在偏高長時間攝取對身體有明顯影響(至少在身型上)。但可以肯定的是我不會因為這幅誇張的 infographic 而放棄我心愛的可樂。因為偶然一罐可樂是絕對不會有問題的。最多,最多我晚飯後去跑個步消耗一下吧。

報道:

Buzzfeed, Here’s What’s Wrong With That Viral Coca-Cola Graphic, 31 July 2015

參考資料:

  1. des Gachons, C. P., Beauchamp, G. K., Stern, R. M., Koch, K. L., & Breslin, P. A. (2011). Bitter taste induces nausea. Current Biology, 21(7), R247-R248. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2011.02.028

  2. The Guardian, New evidence on fructose in Coca Cola, Pepsi and other sodas in the US, 4 June 2014

  3. Holstege, G., Georgiadis, J. R., Paans, A. M., Meiners, L. C., van der Graaf, F. H., & Reinders, A. S. (2003). Brain activation during human male ejaculation.The Journal of Neuroscience, 23(27), 9185-9193. 

  4. Jensen, T. K., Swan, S. H., Skakkebæk, N. E., Rasmussen, S., & Jørgensen, N. (2010). Caffeine intake and semen quality in a population of 2,554 young Danish men. American journal of epidemiology, 171(8), 883-891. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwq007. Epub

  5. Lee, D. R., Lee, J., Rota, M., Lee, J., Ahn, H. S., Park, S. M., & Shin, D. (2014). Coffee consumption and risk of fractures: A systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis. Bone, 63, 20-28. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2014.02.007. Epub

  6. Maughan, R. J., & Griffin, J. (2003). Caffeine ingestion and fluid balance: a review. Journal of human nutrition and dietetics, 16(6), 411-420.

  7. Stanhope, K. L., Bremer, A. A., Medici, V., Nakajima, K., Ito, Y., Nakano, T., ... & Havel, P. J. (2011). Consumption of fructose and high fructose corn syrup increase postprandial triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, and apolipoprotein-B in young men and women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2011-1251

  8. Walker, R. W., Dumke, K. A., & Goran, M. I. (2014). Fructose content in popular beverages made with and without high-fructose corn syrup. Nutrition, 30(7), 928-935. DOI: 10.1016/j.nut.2014.04.003

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