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【愛知三年展】韓慰安婦像被中止展出 83 組藝術家聯署抗議向暴力恐嚇低頭

2019/8/7 — 15:50

日本「愛知三年展 2019」一個與韓國慰安婦有關的少女雕像,引起部份日本人強烈不滿,主辦單位更接到死亡恐嚇。主辦單位 4 日宣布,基於安全理由,中止展出該作及其他一批作品。三年展全部約 90 組藝術家中,一共 83 組其後聯署,抗議中止展出,要求三年展拒向暴力恐嚇低頭。

聲明提出三點要求﹕即時恢復愛知三年展 2019 自主權,使之免受政治壓力及恐嚇干預;在確保職員及觀眾安全的情況下繼續展覽;設立平台,開放給公眾及藝術家進行自由及激烈討論。聯署人包括香港藝術家梁志和和黄志恒,此外亦有知名者如 Chim | Pom、藤井光、岡本光博、小泉明郎、白川昌生、高山明、田中功起、Tania Bruguera 等。

聯署人在公開信中提到,對日本近日就事件激發的情緒表達憂慮。他們表示,注意到事件為主辦方引來大量電話滋擾甚至死亡恐嚇,表示會盡一切力量防止這種暴力出現,「我們相信需要做好所有預防措施,確保展覽職員與觀眾的身心安全。」

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然而他們仍認為展覽不應中止。聯署藝術家表示,中止展出等於剝奪觀眾觀看作品的機會,扼殺他們繼續討論的可能。此外,封展亦同時殺死了觀眾的各種回應。「我們強烈反對政治家對藝術機構內的展覽、放映以及表演的任何暴力介入。」

「我們從事藝術,並不是為鎮壓或分化人,而是尋找不同方法團結人。」聯署人指,他們所追求的是一個需要耐性以達至更深層理解的過程,而這過程和暴力介入恰恰相反。「我們藝術家嘗試在三年展中創造一個場所,使它能夠,哪怕是暫時地,也可讓人們的愛與同情、憤怒與哀傷,即使是意圖兇殺的情感,也可在想像中扭轉和顛覆。」他們相信,三年展可以達成這些使命。

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涉事展專門展出過去曾被審查作品

今次涉事作品是南韓藝術家創作的「和平少女像」。此像又稱慰安婦像,是二戰期間日軍慰安婦受害者的象徵。此像最早出現在韓國首爾的日本大使館大門對面,其後擴展至世界各地日本大使館外。一些日本輿論批評韓國政府鼓勵民間團體設置雕像,等於鼓吹極端民族主義,加劇反日情緒。

在今次事件,慰安婦像的其中一個版本,在一個名為「表達的不自由・在那之後」的展覽中展出,而「表達的不自由・在那之後」展覽則是「愛知三年展 2019」的一部份。「表達的不自由・在那之後」展出的二十多件作品,全部都曾在過去因被日本公立博物館及畫廊審查而無法展出。除慰安婦像外,亦包括一批南韓前慰安婦照片,以及一首歌頌和平、維護日本憲法第九條的詩作等。

展覽的概念由「愛知三年展 2019」總監津田大介提出。津田大介說,儘管知道展出作品會讓部份人士感到不快,但仍希望能引發討論,讓觀眾反省為何這些作品曾被審查。

策展團隊在事前已曾提出展覽或帶來安全與管理問題,但團隊因尊重津田大介的想法,仍決定實行。展覽開始前,愛知縣美術館已在該處加強保安,包括派兩名保安在場及增設監控鏡頭。

收匿名恐嚇 「帶石油氣罐來打擾」

展覽果然引來右翼立場人士激烈批評。未開幕前,一些日本市民在傳媒看到報道,已致電主辦方投訴。開幕首日(本月 1 日),主辦單位接到多達 200 個投訴電話。有網民更以起底方式,將工作人員資料在網上公開。

不僅如此,主辦單位更收到傳真,要求「立即撤掉作品」,否則「帶石油汽罐來打擾」。訊息令不少日本人聯想到不久前才發生的京都動畫事件。

民眾以外,亦有政治家就事件施壓。名古屋市長河村隆之稱作品傷害日本人感情,要求主辦方中止展出。內閣官房長官菅義偉更在回應事件時提到,「愛知三年展 2019」獲日本政府文化廳資助,有關資金會在釐清事實並詳加調查後作出應對,被指暗示如不撤展便會取消資助。

以安全為由撤展

受壓下,本月 3 日,三年展執行委員會會長、愛知縣知事大村秀章正式宣布,中止「表達的不自由・在那之後」展覽。他指,展覽受到嚴重安全威脅,令觀眾難以正常觀展,故作出中止決定。「表達的不自由・在那之後」展廳已於 4 日起關閉,內裡作品去向則未有定案。

對於中止展出決定,津田大介指,主要原因是接到太多抗議電話,讓工作人員身心疲憊。他又說,自己「製造了表達自由倒退的案例」,感到要為此負責。

然而,中止消息公布後,「表達的不自由・在那之後」的執委會又發公開信,表示反對中止展出的決定。他們要求展覽按原定計劃展至最後,又斥事件為「戰後最嚴重的審查」。

三年一度的「愛知三年展 2019」為日本最大型國際展覽之一,今年展期從 8 月 1 日到 10 月 14 日止,共有來自 30 個國家及地區超過 90 組藝術家參與,當中包括香港藝術家梁志和及黃志恆。該展總監每年更換,今年總監津田大介本身是記者,在展覽舉行前已強調今次展品政治意識強烈。

STATEMENT BY THE ARTISTS OF AICHI TRIENNALE 2019 ON THE CLOSURE OF AFTER “FREEDOM OF EXPRESSION?”

We the undersigned are participating artists in Aichi Triennale 2019. We here express our thoughts on the closure of the exhibit After “Freedom of Expression”, a section of the Triennale featuring artworks that have experienced various forms of censorship at public art institutions across Japan.

As chosen by artistic director Daisuke Tsuda, the theme of Aichi Triennale 2019 is “Taming Y/Our Passion.” In his statement on the exhibition concept, Tsuda writes:

Many concerns are shared around the world today, including anxieties related to the increase in terrorism, cutbacks in hiring domestic workers, crime, and making ends meet. Feelings of aversion towards refugees and immigrants have risen to unprecedented heights in the United States and Europe. The United Kingdom voted to leave the EU in 2016. Donald Trump was voted president of the United States under the platform of “America First.” Xenophobic voices have become emboldened here in Japan as well. At the source is anxiety—the anxiety of an uncertain future, and the anxiety of feeling unsafe and vulnerable to danger.

Many of us feel anxious about the strong displays of emotion roiling Japan today. Irrespective of its being directed at a single work or section of the exhibition, we have grave concerns about the occurrence of political intervention into the Triennale, as well as threats of violence against the exhibition and those involved in it. It is a fact that the exhibition received hundreds of intimidating phone calls after the opening of the Triennale, as well as a fax warning of an attack on the venue using gasoline and fire—recalling the July 18 arson attack on an animation studio in Kyoto that has claimed at least thirty-five lives to date. We are alarmed by the possibility of any harm coming to the people watching over our works during the exhibition period, and will do everything in our power to resist such terroristic threats and intimidation. We believe that all precautions must be taken to ensure the mental and physical safety of the exhibition staff and visitors.

We insist that After “Freedom of Expression” should remain on view on that condition. Normally an exhibition space is meant to be an open, public site, but the closure of the exhibit just three days after the Triennale opening has robbed people of the opportunity to see the artworks and foreclosed any active discussion of them. Moreover, it has shut down the diversity of responses, ranging from feelings of anger to sorrow, that viewers might have had in front of the artworks. We strongly object to any violent intervention by politicians into exhibits, screenings, and performances at art institutions, and the kinds of menacing acts and intimidation that drove the Triennale to close After “Freedom of Expression” as an emergency measure.

We practice art not to suppress or divide people, but to find different ways of creating solidarity among them, and to pursue the possibilities for free thinking beyond political beliefs. We strive to be creative in the face of uncertainty. Through the production of sculptures, through texts, paintings, performances, music, reenactments, psychomagic, films and videos, and by means of new media technology, by collaborating, and by seeking out new routes and detours, we artists have tried to create a place in the Triennale where, if only temporarily, people’s love and compassion, anger and sadness, and even their murderous feelings can be imaginatively inverted and overturned.

What we seek is a patient process for reaching deeper understanding—the opposite of violent interventions. What we seek is a discussion that is open to all people and respects individual opinions and conditions, and a Triennale that is capable of realizing such a discussion.

We request the following: (1) the immediate restoration of the Aichi Triennale 2019’s autonomy from political pressure and intimidation; (2) the continuation of the exhibition under the assurance of safety for all its staff and visitors; and (3) the establishment of a platform for free and vigorous discussion that is open to all, including the participating artists. 
It is our conviction that the first principle of any creative endeavor is thinking about and coming up with new solutions together.

August 6, 2019
72 Participating Artists of Aichi Triennale 2019 (編按﹕其後聯署藝術家增至 83 人)
[email protected]

List of Artists (August 6, 2019)

Aoki Miku
BeBe(Shinkazoku)
Candice Breitz
James Bridle
Tania Bruguera 
Miriam Cahn
Pia Camil
Chim↑Pom
Heather Dewey Hagborg
dividual inc.
exonemo
Echigo Masashi
Endo Mikiko
Hikaru Fujii
Fujiwara Aoi
Dora García
Ge Yulu
Hanzaka Yui (Shinkazoku)
Hirose Nanako
Hoshiwowa Yumeka (Shinkazoku)
Ichihara Satoko
Imamura Yohei
Imazu Kei
Ishiba Ayako
伊藤 ガビン (Gabin Ito)
Iwasaki Takahiro
Regina José Galindo
Meiro Koizumi
Komanbe (Shinkazoku)
Komori Haruka
Kuwakubo Ryota
Kyun-chome
Leung Chi Wo + Sara Wong
Lim Minouk
Jason Maling
Amanda Martinez
Claudia Martinez Garay
Masumoto Yoshiko
Mónica Mayer
Mayumi (Shinkazoku)
Miura Motoi
Miyata Nana (Shinkazoku)
Nagahata Koji
Nagata Kosuke
Ohashi Ai
Okamoto Mitsuhiro
One-phrase・Politics(Shinkazoku)
Oura Nobuyuki
Oyama Natsuko (Shinkazoku)
Park Chan-kyong
Sawada Hana
白川 昌生 (Yoshio Shirakawa)
Shimada Yoshiko
Studio Drift
Suge Syunichi
Takamine Tadasu
高山 明 (Akira Takayama)
Koki Tanaka
Javier Téllez
TM(Shinkazoku)
Toda Hikaru
Tomita Katsuya
Tomotoshi
Tsuda Michiko
Usui Yui
Wada Yuina (Shinkazoku)
Washio Tomoyuki
Anna Witt
Yuan Goang-Ming
Yumisashi Kanji
Yoshida Chie (Shinkazoku)
Yoshigai Nao

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