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【后海灣一分鐘】三、為什麼雀鳥喜愛活躍魚塘?

2019/2/12 — 16:55

魚塘的生態價值其實與魚塘的運作息息相關。漁民在收獲塘魚(俗稱「刮魚」)前會先把塘水泵到鄰近的魚塘,這些淺水魚塘吸引候鳥前來捕捉一些經濟價值較低的雜魚和無脊椎動物。我們在這些淺水的魚塘濕地共錄得 83 種水鳥及依賴濕地的雀鳥,當中更有11種為全球瀕危鳥種,如極度瀕危的勺嘴鷸和瀕危的黑臉琵鷺。降水後的魚塘所錄得的水鳥物種比降水前高出達 19 倍。

自 2012 年起,香港觀鳥會獲環境及自然保育基金資助,在新界西北的魚塘展開自然保育管理協議計劃,以確保魚塘每年都會降低水位,並維持該水位至少一個星期。這正正就是「明智使用濕地」的最佳例子,透過與本地漁民合作保育濕地,同時有利經濟和社會方面得以永續。每年參與計劃的養魚戶管理后海灣一帶超過 600 公頃的魚塘。

但由於魚塘降水主要由市場主導,每一次降水的魚塘只佔后海灣整片魚塘的一少部份,所以供給雀鳥的食物會隨時間和空間而有所改變。我們應保護及維持大量的魚塘運作,以確保每一刻都有魚塘進行降水,為雀鳥提供穩定的食物供應。

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延伸閱讀:
香港魚塘生態保育計劃
「共享土地先導計劃」改名換姓 助地產商開發「候鳥天堂」
反對犧牲「濕地緩衝區」以換取后海灣濕地保育

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【Deep Bay In A Minute】3. Why birds love working fishponds?

Interestingly, the ecological value of fishponds is related to its operation. When fishermen drain the ponds to harvest their fish, the trash fish (those that are too small to be sold) and other invertebrates left in the shallow water of the pond creates a favourable feeding habitat for waterbirds. 83 waterbirds and other wetland-dependent bird species were recorded utilizing drained fishponds, including 11 globally threatened species. These include the critically endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper and the endangered Black-faced Spoonbill. The number of waterbird species recorded during drain-down was found to be about 19 times higher than the number recorded before the fishpond drain-down. 

In 2012 HKBWS established a Management Agreement with a number of fishpond operators in Deep Bay with funding support from the Environment and Conservation Fund, under which each fishpond must be drained for at least a week per year. This is an example of “wise use of wetland”, where conservation of wetland is achieved through the engagement of the local fishpond operators, as it is both economically and socially sustainable, as well as beneficial for the environment. Every year, fishpond operators participated in the scheme are managing over 600 hectares of fishponds in the Deep Bay area. 

However, as the drain down is market driven, the number of drained fishponds at any one time only represent a small percentage of the total, and thus the food supply for birds at fishponds changes over both time and space. Therefore, it is important to conserve a large number of fishponds, so as to ensure there are drained fishponds at any given time in order to maintain the food supply for birds.

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