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【后海灣一分鐘】二、「濕地保育區 (WCA) 」和「濕地緩衝區 (WBA) 」從何而來?

2019/2/8 — 12:25

六十年代起,地產發展開始擴散至新界以至后海灣一帶的濕地,包括其後出現鄰近米埔的錦綉花園私人住宅項目和天水圍新市鎮。 1983 年的「生發案」中,高級法院裁定只要發展不包括任何建築物,地段擁有人可以把土地用作農業以外的用途,於是進一步鼓勵更多魚塘被填平作各類棕地作業,嚴重威脅后海灣的濕地生態。

隨著港英政府估計鄉郊土地將受到無法預期的破壞,環境保護署於 1988 年委託顧問公司,研究后海灣地區的自然資源和潛在的環境問題,制訂行動計劃以管理后海灣,並評估不同發展項目以致整體的發展模式帶來的累積影響。報告確認了后海灣濕地的重要性並提出多項保育建議,例如訂立綜合環境管理計劃,並為后海灣設立緩衝區。

1991 年,《城市規劃條例》正式加入鄉郊地區的發展管制。規劃署於1992年制訂指引,以管制在后海灣經城市規劃委員會審批的發展規劃,並成立后海灣緩衝區一 (BZ1) 和二 (BZ2) 。

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米埔內后海灣一帶於 1995 年正式被納入為「拉姆薩爾濕地」,規劃署於同年委託顧問公司進行「后海灣地區魚塘生態價值研究」,確認魚塘的生態價值。報告建議將連綿一片的魚塘劃為濕地保育區作保育,並將保育區以外的五百米範圍劃為濕地緩衝區。濕地保育區及濕地緩衝區於 1999 年正式取代 BZ1 和 BZ2 ,其範圍在 2014 年隨邊境禁區開放而延伸至蠔殼圍及馬草壟一帶。

2004 年,「內后海灣及深圳河集水區」亦被國際鳥盟認可為「重點鳥區」,範圍由白泥及流浮山伸展至塱原等地,包括大部份濕地保育區及濕地緩衝區。

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想知更多

延伸閱讀:

  1. 國際鳥盟「內后海灣及深圳河集水區」重點鳥區
  2. 「共享土地先導計劃」改名換姓 助地產商開發「候鳥天堂」
  3. 反對犧牲「濕地緩衝區」以換取后海灣濕地保育

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【Deep Bay In A Minute】2. Where did WCA and WBA come from?

Since the 1960s, development pressure started to encroach into the Deep Bay area, with new developments such as Fairview Park and Tin Shui Wai New Town emerging in the 1980s and 1990s. The “Melhado” case in 1983, in whichthe High Court ruled that land zoned for agriculture may be used for non-agricultural purposes as long as no structure is built, has led to the draining of fishponds for brownfield operations such as container storage that threatened the wetlands in the Deep Bay area.

In 1988, the Environmental Protection Department commissioned a consultant to study the impacts of development activities on the environmental and natural resources of Deep Bay and to develop an action plan for the management of the Deep Bay. The study recognized the importance of the Deep Bay wetlands and recommended conservation actions including the establishment of integrated conservation management plans and buffer zones for Deep Bay.

In 1991, development control in rural areas was introduced under the Town Planning Ordinance (TPO). In 1992, the Planning Department established a set of planning guidelines under the TPO to regulate development applications in the Deep Bay area with Buffer Zones 1 (BZ1) and 2 (BZ2).

In 1995 Mai Po and Inner Deep Bay was recognized as wetland of International Importance under the Ramsar Convention. In the same year the Planning Department commissioned a study on the Ecological Value of Fish Ponds in the Deep Bay Area, which confirmed the ecological importance of fishponds. The study recommended that the continuous and adjoining fishponds should be conserved and to be zoned as “Wetland Conservation Area” (WCA), while a surrounding buffer zone of about 500m wide to be designated as “Wetland Buffer Area” (WBA). In 1999, the BZ1 and BZ2 were replaced by WCA and WBA and was extended to cover the Hoo Hok Wai and Ma Tso Lung area in 2014 after the opening of the frontier closed area.

In 2004, the Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area, including areas of WCA/WBA and other areas stretching from Pak Nai and Lau Fau Shan to Long Valley, was recognized by BirdLife International an Important Bird Area.

Know more

Further Readings: 
BirdLife International “Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area” Important Bird Area
 

 

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