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【后海灣一分鐘】五、米埔和魚塘大不同?

2019/2/18 — 15:43

翻開 1997 年的魚塘研究報告,發現曾經有人將米埔自然護理區和三個魚塘區(包括馬草壟、練板村及甩洲/南生圍)所錄得的雀鳥物種作比較。前者每年錄得 223 種雀鳥而後者則錄得 168 種。米埔自然護理區明顯有較多涉禽、海鷗和燕鷗的紀錄,也許因為它較接近泥灘,並有合適的棲息生境。話雖如此,兩個地方在其他鳥種的紀錄上其實相差無幾。

而且,大部份在后海灣錄到的瀕危雀鳥如黑臉琵鷺,在魚塘區也有紀錄。再比較后海灣、米埔自然護理區和魚塘區的水鳥數量,不難發現三個地方不同水鳥種類的最高數目都錄得類近的趨勢。由此可見,米埔自然護理區和魚塘區無論在雀鳥種類或水鳥數量的趨勢都十分相似,所以我們應將米埔自然護理區和后海灣一帶的魚塘視為一個完整的生態系統。

我們在 2018 年為幾種水鳥開展了衛星追蹤研究。研究發現其中一隻小白鷺一年間的活動範圍足足覆蓋了整個內后海灣,包括泥灘、米埔自然護理區和魚塘區。牠甚至在夏天留在后海灣其中一個鷺鳥林繁殖。這次發現恰恰確定了雀鳥不會看到我們為米埔自然護理區劃上的界線;反而牠們只懂得在后海灣一帶尋找最合適的生境。

米埔自然護理區和后海灣魚塘大不同?非也。它們更應被看待為同一個生態系統。

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【Deep Bay in a Minute】 5. Any difference between the birds in Mai Po and in fishponds?

In the 1997 fishpond study, bird species recorded in Mai Po Nature Reserve (MPNR) and in three fishpond areas (i.e. Ma Tso Lung, Lin Barn Tsuen and Lut Chau/Nam Sang Wai) were compared. A total of 223 and 168 bird species were recorded in a year in MPNR and the fishpond area respectively. Mai Po had significantly more waders, gulls and terns, perhaps it is closer to the mudflat and has suitable roosting habitats. Yet, other bird groups were similar. Most of the threatened species recorded in the Deep Bay area, such as the globally endangered Black-faced Spoonbill, were also recorded in the fishpond area. When comparing the peak bird counts of waterbirds in Deep Bay, MPNR and fishponds, much the same patterns were observed. This similarity in bird composition and bird abundance pattern suggests that MPNR and the fishpond area across the Deep Bay should be treated as one integral system.

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Our recent satellite tracking research conducted in 2018 found that the activity range of one Little Egret within a year can covered the inner Deep Bay, including in the mudflats, MPNR and fishpond area. It even bred in one of the egretries in Deep Bay during summer. This further confirms that birds do not distinguish the boundary at MPNR, but identifies the suitable habitats within the whole Deep Bay area. Therefore, the fishponds and MPNR should be treated collectively as part of the same ecosystem.

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