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應對海上垃圾無效!

2017/5/22 — 19:32

本港海洋垃圾問題備受關注,圖為垃圾灣。(圖片來源:WWF)

本港海洋垃圾問題備受關注,圖為垃圾灣。(圖片來源:WWF)

立法會環境事務委員會在5 月 22 日向委員匯報政府於過去兩年處理海上垃圾的工作進度和未來動向。

政府表示:

略性地在 27 個優先處理地點增加清潔次數;
海事處自 2016 年夏季開始,額外調派一艘裝有機動鏟的垃圾清理船;
粵港雙方在 2017 年 4 月舉行第一次專題小組會議。

廣告

政府表示,其未來方向是:

撥款 1,000 萬元,資助本港非牟利機構舉辦環保教育項目;
以期於今年 7 月制訂新的優先處理地點清單。

廣告

負責部門

香港清理海上垃圾方面由海事處、“漁農署”、“食環署”及“康文署”負責。

漁農署負責海岸公園和海岸保護區(註1)。它有1位海岸公園主任(西區)、1位一級海岸公園、1位郊野公園護理主任(西北區)和約三百六十名執法人員。根據漁護署的工作指引,海岸公園護理員每天從海上及陸上沿岸巡邏,須配備巡邏船進行日夜巡邏監察工作。它包括海下灣海岸公園、印洲塘海岸公園、沙洲及龍鼓洲海岸公園、東平洲海岸公園、鶴咀海岸保護區、大小磨刀海岸公園。大小磨刀海岸公園於二零一六年十二月三十日獲得指定,因此其保護區自二零一七年起由2430公頃改為3400公頃。

康文署在憲報公布泳灘的沙區範圍所收集的垃圾。

食環署會在未編配的沿岸地區收集被沖上岸的垃圾和其他廢物。按現場情況,進行特設或定期清理,頻率由每日 1 次至每半年 1 次不等。由此,香港的大部份海上垃圾由海事處負責。

立法會十二題:海上垃圾

根據回覆,在二○一六年七月至十二月期間,每月收集的海上垃圾總量(公噸)載於下表:

其平均跌幅為每月211公噸。

預算案資料

香港海上垃圾的源頭及去向調查

研究報告由環境保護署在2015 年 4 月發表。報告指出,漁護署會在海岸公園及海岸保護區內的沿岸收集垃圾。按現場情況,每週 3 次至 6 次清理海岸公園,而不允許進行康樂活動的鶴咀海岸保護區則為每月清理 1 次。(這是鶴咀成了垃圾灣的原因)

圖二需要注意的是,它是收集垃圾的走勢,不一定代表積聚的垃圾。例如大嶼山向北的䃟(石散)石灣,筆者從未見過人清理。

海事處

海事處的承辦商會收集漂浮在香港水域內,包括海濱區及避風塘的垃圾。每日,承辦商會動用約 70 艘不同類型的清理船隻收集海上的漂浮垃圾和其他船隻上的袋裝生活垃圾。

香港海事博物館

2014年,香港的環保份子Maker-Bay總監川崎(Cesar Harada)帶一群小學生到一個海灣,測試他們開發的塑料傳感器。 但是測試必須立即被放棄,因為我們的實驗(塑料碎片)成為許多魚和海龜的盛宴。這是非常可怕的。 我們花了10個人,4艘船和40分鐘清潔138克塑料碎片。”

香港海事博物館在2017年發表了海洋中的塑料碎片報告。報告指出海事處的3艘裝有機動鏟的垃圾清理船(現應為4),外加70艘漁民舢舨收集垃圾的成效值得懷疑(註二),因為——

其行動沒有目標策略,無法評估成效;
舢舨收集垃圾純為安置老漁民,績效不彰;
在2011年以1億9千萬將全港的清理海上垃圾外判給啟發公司,平均每年3千8百萬,但沒有增加資源。

後記

從資料看,海事處按年收集的海上漂浮垃圾約為1萬1千多噸,由於收集方法因循和沒有增加資源,任由其多出的垃圾漂浮。

事實上,香港海事博物館建議了:

“將責任分配到多個政府部門,還是應該像海事處一個單一的部門對香港的水域承擔責任,而讓環保部門做其他嘢呢?

延長政府合同期限是否值得,以便部署更現代化和高效的設備來解決浮動廢物?鑑於香港擁有海洋建築及工程方面的實力,本地專家有否能力設計合適的工具,並在本地建造?這樣做不僅可以創造就業機會,而且還有可能開放出口市場,建立香港作為創新和卓越的中心。

香港與廣東省和澳門特區的附近機構和政府機構合作,有助於解決珠江三角洲的問題?

此外,收集的數據的方法是否可以改善呢?是否可能根據當時的風和浪潮在一年的不同時間創建一個海洋垃圾堆積點數據庫,以便垃圾收集隊能夠更有效?”

可以說,政府所說的在2012年設立的跨部門小組(註四)解決香港的海上垃圾問題,如其他跨部門小組般,是一些沒用的東西。

 

備註

註一

於一九九五年頒布的《海岸公園條例》(第476章)是香港海洋存護的里程碑。該條例賦予漁農自然護理署署長所需的法定權力,擔任郊野公園及海岸公園管理局總監,負責聽取郊野公園及海岸公園委員會和其轄下各委員會的意見後,劃定、管理及管轄香港海岸公園及海岸保護區。於一九九六年七月頒布的《海岸公園及海岸保護區規例》訂定條文,禁止或管制在海岸公園及海岸保護區內進行某些活動。

第476章《海岸公園條例》

0.規例

 (1)環境局局長可訂立規例,以就下列事項訂定條文——

 (a)妥善管理及管轄海岸公園及海岸保護區(包括指明海岸公園及海岸保護區內的區域,及封閉或局部封閉海岸公園及海岸保護區);

(b)禁止或管制在海岸公園及海岸保護區內進行以下活動——

(i)釣魚、捕魚及以槍刺捕魚;

(ii)海產養殖;

(iii)游泳及潛水;

(iv)採集海洋生物及資源;

(v)船艇活動,包括滑浪、滑浪風帆活動及滑水;

(vi)在沙灘上燒烤及露營;

(vii)碇泊;

(viii)販賣;

(ix)傾倒物料及拋棄垃圾;

(x)廣告宣傳;及

(xi)與本條例條文或根據本條所訂立的任何規例的執行有抵

9.妨擾行為的防止

(1)任何人不得在海岸公園或海岸保護區內——

(a)故意或疏忽地污損、損壞、弄污或弄髒任何由總監建立、使用或保養的告示、標記、浮標、設施或裝置;

(b)故意或疏忽地以任何方法阻塞或污染任何水池或水潭;或

(c)棄置任何廢物。

 

註二

THE HONG KONG MARITIME MUSEUM

PLASTICS IN HONG KONG WATERS

10 February 2017

 

According to official instructions:

If the sea cleanliness falls below the Satisfactory level, the above Satisfactory level shall be reestablished within 30 minutes, 60 minutes, and 120 minutes respectively in Zone 1, Zone 2, and Zone 3(as indicated in Figure 6).

During service hours, notwithstanding the cleanliness conditions within the service areas, at least 50% of the contractor’s scavenging/collection fleet are required to be in operation carrying out the services or patrolling the designated service areas in search of floating refuse.

Marine Department operate a fleet of three ‘Sea Cleaner’ vessels and employ a contractor to operate more than 70 smaller vessels to clean up floating refuse. Not much information is available about the strategy underpinning the cleaning activities so it is not possible to examine its effectiveness

While inefficient, this approach may be cheap, and offers subsistence-level employment to a number of elderly people in the local maritime community. These positions may be a way for Hong Kong government to provide employment opportunities to the local commercial fishing industry.

A five-year contract for cleaning Hong Kong waters was issued to Kai Fat Harbour Cleaning Services Ltd., in 2011. Records indicate that the contract was worth almost HK$190 million , equivalent to HK$38million per annum.

Once garbage is collected, it is taken to a dedicated berth where it is transferred to shore for disposal. The remainder of the collecting fleet consists of a large number of sampans and small boats. Some have collecting nets to gather the floating garbage but other are staffed by two-person teams with shrimping nets.

 

註三

Points to ponder

 A recent study estimated that between 4.8 and 12.7 million tonnes of plastic entered the world’s oceans in 2010 and experts believe that over half of all sea birds have ingested plastic, a figure which will rise to 95% by the year 205015, although the threat can be reduced by effective waste management policies. WWF’s Coastal Watch project in Hong Kong says that despite the efforts of so many government departments, “the cleanliness of our marine environment is still far from satisfactory and much more work is required to solve the problem”. So how should we proceed?

Support for education and public awareness is universal and uncontroversial. Despite ongoing and long-standing efforts of community clean-ups like the Clean Hong Kong Campaign, there is still much work to do. Some have called for heavy fines and even imprisonment for repeat and significant offenders like those which were introduced in Singapore, while others feel that an approach with emphasises education and community action are not only more suitable, but show signs of progress.

Young people in Hong Kong are certainly more environmentally-aware than their elders, so perhaps additional efforts should be targeted at emphasising the importance of conservation and environmental custodianship in schools.

But the way is less clear in relation to regional cleanup strategies and solutions. Would it make sense to streamline the process of keeping Hong Kong’s waters and shorelines clean? Should responsibility be distributed across multiple government departments or should a single department, like the Marine Department, bear responsibility for Hong Kong’s waters, while the Environmental Protection Department be made responsible for everything else? Would it be worthwhile to extend government contract periods in order to deploy more modern and efficient equipment to tackle floating waste? Given Hong Kong’s prowess in marine architecture and engineering, is there scope for local experts to design suitable craft and have them built locally? Such an approach could not only generate jobs but also has the potential to open up an export market, and establish Hong Kong as a centre for innovation and excellence. But should the government invest in that kind of strategy? Would it be helpful for Hong Kong to partner with nearby institutions and government agencies like Guangdong Province and the Macau SAR to help tackle the problem throughout the Pearl River Delta? Further, is the data collected as useful as possible? Would it perhaps be possible to create a database of marine litter accumulation locations at different times of year based on prevailing winds and tides, so that the garbage collection fleet can target known trouble spots before they become unsightly?

 

註四

海上垃圾, 意指任何因人為活動產生的固體廢物、被棄置或遺失的物料,不論其源頭,最終進入香港的海洋環境中。雖然海上垃圾只佔由政府處置的都市固體廢物少於 0.5%,海上垃圾或會對海洋生態和香港其他具實益用途但敏感的水域造成不良影響。政府在 2012 年 11 月成立了海岸清潔跨部門工作小組(工作小組),以加強政府相關部門在應對海上垃圾問題的協調。在工作小組的支持下,本研究旨在收集、整理和分析有關在香港水域的海上垃圾的源頭、分佈和流向的最新資料,並提出措施進一步提高我們海岸的環境清潔。

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