立場新聞 Stand News

溫柔的復仇

2015/7/1 — 15:37

遭南非特工炸斷右臂、炸瞎左目的Albie Sachs (圖:http://www.uml.edu/)

遭南非特工炸斷右臂、炸瞎左目的Albie Sachs (圖:http://www.uml.edu/)

前南非憲法法院大法官奧比‧薩克斯(Albie Sachs)寫過兩部得獎作品,一本《The Soft Vengeance of a Freedom Fighter》,一本《The Strange Alchemy of Life and Law》,前者寫自己遭南非特工炸斷右臂、炸瞎左目後,遠走英倫、步步康復的故事,後者則道出他出任憲法法院大法官期間對法治和人權的思考,兩書都先後獲得南非Alan Paton文學獎。

難得的是薩克斯舉重若輕,涉筆成趣,不避俚俗,《The Soft Vengeance》一書,正以「Oh Shit」二字開頭,寫自己受襲的過程。手術蘇醒後,他無暇詛咒敵人,倒慶幸陽具仍在、睪丸猶存,盡見性情:

廣告

My hand goes down. I am wearing nothing under the sheet, it is easy to feel my body. My penis is all there, my good old cock (I’m alone with myself and can say the word) that has involved me in so much happiness and so much despair and will no doubt lead me up hill and down dale in the future as well, and my balls one, two, both in place, perhaps I should call them testes since I am in hospital.

薩克斯愛笑,似乎是「快樂抗爭」的信奉者,也相信諧謔是衡量民主政體健康與否的標誌之一,在Laugh It Off Promotions CC v South African Breweries International (Finance)一案中,他用一清如水的文筆寫道:

廣告

A society that takes itself too seriously risks bottling up its tensions and treating every example of irrelevance as a threat to its existence. Humour is one of the great solvents of democracy. It permits the ambiguities and contradictions of public life to be articulated in non-violent forms. It promotes diversity. It enables a multitude of discontents to be expressed in myriad of spontaneous ways. It is an elixir of constitutional health.

可是,對千千萬萬在種族隔離的噩夢中受盡迫害的南非人民來說,這樣的筆意會否失之輕浮?畢竟,誠如薩克斯所述,康復期間,戰友來訪,他強作幽默,戰友卻未曾一笑,只為他的兒子,同樣受炸彈襲擊,不幸喪生。《The Strange Alchemy》前言所說的悲劇,亦慘無人道:一位民運人士,被特工逮捕,連日虐待,全身赤裸,遇害之前,她用藍色垃圾袋為自己做了一件內衣,就像她不願賣友求存的舉動一樣,她以最卑微也最高貴的方式保持了自身的尊嚴。

抗爭激烈,心存溫柔,薩克斯的笑聲,像恰到好處的休止符一樣,別有深意。在電台訪問中,談到他的施襲者,薩克斯說他最大的願望,並非以牙還牙、以眼還眼,而是被告會得到公平的審訊,倘若證據不足,被告理應當庭釋放,惟其如此,他多年來為之捨身奮鬥的價值,始能得到彰顯。

所以,在薩克斯推動下,南非立法機關根據憲法成立真相和和解委員會(Truth and Reconciliation Commission),凡種族隔離政策執行期間因服從政治指令而侵害人權者,只要坦承罪行,都有望獲得特赦。據薩克斯所說,此舉全為撫平南非人民的創傷,他以知識(knowledge)和體認(acknowledgement)之分來說明他的觀點:

Knowledge involves possessing information, being aware of facts. There was in reality an enormous amount of knowledge about repression in South Africa, but hardly any acknowledgement of what the cost was in human terms. Acknowledgement involves an acceptance not only of the existence of a phenomenon, but of its emotional and social significance. It presupposes a sense of responsibility for the occurrence, an understanding of the meaning that it has for the persons involved and for society as a whole.

薩克斯寫抗爭者的勇敢,也寫迫害者的悔罪,一而貫之,記錄的都是人的尊嚴和向善的可能。卡謬說,真正的革命,不應血流成河,因為革命的目的,正為維護人類共有的價值。薩克斯是學者,是法官,寫同一道理,文字卻比卡謬浪漫:「民主到來南非之日,玫瑰和水仙將自我斷臂長出。此即我溫柔的復仇。(But if we got democracy in South Africa, I came to write, then roses and lilies would grow out of my amputated arm. And that would be my soft vengeance.)」

發表意見