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異見人士受到廣泛關注是極權社會的指標!

2017/6/28 — 15:37

劉曉波先生的消息一直受著世人的關注。但今天的消息令人憤怒。事件讓人立即聯想到北韓,中國真的要與北韓看齊嗎?

劉曉波

北京師範大學中文系講師,因八九民運被捕入獄,於2008年起草《零八憲章》主張修改憲法、分權制衡、立法民主、司法獨立、公器公用、人權保障、公職選舉、城鄉平等、結社自由、集會自由、言論自由、宗教自由、公民教育、財產保護、財稅改革、社會保障、環境保護、聯邦共和、轉型正義共19條而被判刑11年(註1)。

廣告

李旺陽

工運人士,1983年組織「邵陽市工人互助會」,前後坐牢22年,2012年64前夕接受訪問,誓言“就是砍頭,也不回頭!”他的被自殺引起廣泛關注,連香港的部份建制派也看不過眼。

廣告

魏京生

1978年參與天安門及民主牆運動,貼出大字報《要民主還是要新的獨裁》被單獨囚禁18年。

極權指標

魏京生、李旺陽、劉曉波都是當代華人和世界廣泛關注的異見人士,他們的堅毅受到人們的尊敬。他們的存在提醒人們中共極權的存在。他們的事績令人尊敬是因為人們希望中國走向民主和自由。

泛政治化

劉曉波先生的突然保外就醫被一些評論員評為中共想修飾面門。這是泛政治化的想法。事情是劉曉波先生已確診為末期肝癌,中共不想他死在獄中。中共從來都是自私自利。

中國夢

習近平為了自己千秋萬代,要重建中華民族的5千年中國夢。但中共在處理劉曉波先生的手法,只會讓人想到中華民族的5千年歷史的貪官酷吏,人民的不幸。中國成為世界上最強大的極權國家,是最令人擔心的地方。

諾貝爾和平獎

今天更讓人回憶起2010年的諾貝爾獎領獎典禮、其空凳。當委員會主席宣讀:「劉曉波正是踐行了他的公民權利。他的所做所為無錯、無罪,因此他必須獲得釋放!」時,全體嘉賓包括挪威國王和皇后起立,掌聲雷動;當美籍華裔小提琴家張萬鈞演奏《茉莉花》、《彩雲追月》和《愛的禮讚》,表達劉曉波對劉霞的愛;挪威女演員莉芙厄爾曼(Liv Ullmann)朗讀劉曉波的〈我沒有敵人——我的最後陳述〉時,美國女演員安妮夏菲維( Anne Hathaway)忍不住拭淚。國內僅有《財經時報》報道,被譽為內地唯一沒有沉默的媒體。

今天,諾貝爾委員會發表聲明(註2),表示:“委員會確認其對劉曉波的邀請,劉曉波先生可以隨時來到奧斯陸,領取獎項。

The Committee would like to confirm its standing invitation to Liu Xiaobo to come to Oslo and receive the Committee's tribute.

劉曉波應到挪威領獎

劉曉波先生已為中國的自由與人權付出很大。筆者希望劉曉波先生能夠親自到挪威領獎。每年12月10日又是諾貝爾獎頒獎典禮日子(註3),無論發生什麼事,劉曉波先生的事跡將是今屆頒獎典禮的焦點。筆者僅以此文,向劉曉波先生致以最崇高的敬禮。

 

附錄

註一

零八憲章

2008年12月10日公佈

三、我們的基本主張

藉此,我們本著負責任與建設性的公民精神對國家政制、公民權利與社會發展諸方面提出如下具體主張:

修改憲法:根據前述價值理念修改憲法,刪除現行憲法中不符合主權在民原則的條文,使憲法真正成為人權的保證書和公共權力的許可狀,成為任何個人、團體和黨派不得違反的可以實施的最高法律,為中國民主化奠定法權基礎。

分權制衡:構建分權制衡的現代政府,保證立法、司法、行政三權分立。確立法定行政和責任政府的原則,防止行政權力過分擴張;政府應對納稅人負責;在中央和地方之間建立分權與制衡制度,中央權力須由憲法明確界定授權,地方實行充分自治。

立法民主:各級立法機構由直選產生,立法秉持公平正義原則,實行立法民主。

司法獨立:司法應超越黨派、不受任何幹預,實行司法獨立,保障司法公正;設立憲法法院,建立違憲審查制度,維護憲法權威。儘早撤銷嚴重危害國家法治的各級黨的政法委員會,避免公器私用。

公器公用:實現軍隊國家化,軍人應效忠於憲法,效忠於國家,政黨組織應從軍隊中退出,提高軍隊職業化水平。包括警察在內的所有公務員應保持政治中立。消除公務員錄用的黨派歧視,應不分黨派平等錄用。

人權保障:切實保障人權,維護人的尊嚴。設立對最高民意機關負責的人權委員會,防止政府濫用公權侵犯人權,尤其要保障公民的人身自由,任何人不受非法逮捕、拘禁、傳訊、審問、處罰,廢除勞動教養制度。

公職選舉:全面推行民主選舉制度,落實一人一票的平等選舉權。各級行政首長的直接選舉應制度化地逐步推行。定期自由競爭選舉和公民參選法定公共職務是不可剝奪的基本人權。

城鄉平等:廢除現行的城鄉二元戶籍制度,落實公民一律平等的憲法權利,保障公民的自由遷徙權。

結社自由:保障公民的結社自由權,將現行的社團登記審批制改為備案制。開放黨禁,以憲法和法律規範政黨行為,取消一黨壟斷執政特權,確立政黨活動自由和公平競爭的原則,實現政黨政治正常化和法制化。

集會自由:和平集會、遊行、示威和表達自由,是憲法規定的公民基本自由,不應受到執政黨和政府的非法幹預與違憲限制。

言論自由:落實言論自由、出版自由和學術自由,保障公民的知情權和監督權。制訂《新聞法》和《出版法》,開放報禁,廢除現行《刑法》中的“煽動顛覆國家政權罪”條款,杜絕以言治罪。

宗教自由:保障宗教自由與信仰自由,實行政教分離,宗教信仰活動不受政府干預。審查並撤銷限制或剝奪公民宗教自由的行政法規、行政規章和地方性法規;禁止以行政立法管理宗教活動。廢除宗教團體(包括宗教活動場所)必經登記始獲合法地位的事先許可制度,代之以無須任何審查的備案制。

公民教育:取消服務於一黨統治、帶有濃厚意識形態色彩的政治教育與政治考試,推廣以普世價值和公民權利為本的公民教育,確立公民意識,倡導服務社會的公民美德。

財產保護:確立和保護私有財產權利,實行自由、開放的市場經濟制度,保障創業自由,消除行政壟斷;設立對最高民意機關負責的國有資產管理委員會,合法有序地展開產權改革,明晰產權歸屬和責任者;開展新土地運動,推進土地私有化,切實保障公民尤其是農民的土地所有權。

財稅改革:確立民主財政和保障納稅人的權利。建立權責明確的公共財政制度構架和運行機制,建立各級政府合理有效的財政分權體系;對賦稅制度進行重大改革,以降低稅率、簡化稅制、公平稅負。非經社會公共選擇過程,民意機關決議,行政部門不得隨意加稅、開徵新稅。通過產權改革,引進多元市場主體和競爭機制,降低金融準入門檻,為發展民間金融創造條件,使金融體系充分發揮活力。

社會保障:建立覆蓋全體國民的社會保障體制,使國民在教育、醫療、養老和就業等方面得到最基本的保障。

環境保護:保護生態環境,提倡可持續發展,為子孫後代和全人類負責;明確落實國家和各級官員必須為此承擔的相應責任;發揮民間組織在環境保護中的參與和監督作用。

聯邦共和:以平等、公正的態度參與維持地區和平與發展,塑造一個負責任的大國形象。維護香港、澳門的自由制度。在自由民主的前提下,通過平等談判與合作互動的方式尋求海峽兩岸和解方案。以大智慧探索各民族共同繁榮的可能途徑和制度設計,在民主憲政的架構下建立中華聯邦共和國。

轉型正義:為曆次政治運動中遭受政治迫害的人士及其家屬,恢復名譽,給予國家賠償;釋放所有政治犯和良心犯,釋放所有因信仰而獲罪的人員;成立真相調查委員會,查清曆史事件的真相,釐清責任,伸張正義;在此基礎上尋求社會和解。

 
註2

Statement from the Norwegian Nobel Committee

26 June 2017

The Norwegian Nobel Committee has received the news about the release of Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Liu Xiaobo with a mixture of relief and deep worry.

The Committee is delighted to learn that Liu Xiaobo is out of prison at long last. At the same time the Committee strongly regrets that it took serious illness before Chinese authorities were willing to release him from jail. Liu Xiaobo has fought a relentless struggle in favour of democracy and human rights in China and has already paid a heavy price for his involvement. He was, essentially, convicted for exercising his freedom of speech and should never have been sentenced to jail in the first place. Chinese authorities carry a heavy responsibility if Liu Xiaobo, because of his imprisonment, has been denied necessary medical treatment. The Committee hopes that he will now be released without conditions and offered the best possible treatment for his illness, whether it be in China or abroad. Finally, the Committee would like to confirm its standing invitation to Liu Xiaobo to come to Oslo and receive the Committee's tribute. Due to his imprisonment Liu Xiaobo was unable to attend the Nobel Peace Prize award ceremony in 2010. His designated chair at the podium in the Oslo City Hall was left empty.

 

註2-1

Six questions to Olav Njølstad, Director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute

Olav Njølstad

Olav Njølstad, Director of the Norwegian Nobel Institute, about the release of Liu Xiaobo.

What was your first reaction when you heard about the news?

I felt relief and sorrow. Relief because he was finally out of prison. Sorrow because it appears that it took serious illness before Chinese authorities were willing to release him from jail.

Have you or anyone in the committee been in direct contact with Liu Xiaobo?

No. And we had no pre-warning that this was about to happen.

Do you think this should be interpreted in a political way or is it merely a question of Liu Xiaobo's illness?

So far it looks more like the latter but we should not jump at any conclusion yet.

Liu Xiaobo got the Nobel Peace Prize in 2010 "for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China". What effect, if any, do you think the Prize has had since it was awarded to Liu Xiaobo?

It has helped reminding the world about the lack of political and personal freedom in China.

Will Liu Xiaobo be able to collect his prize money now that he has been granted medical parole?

If a Nobel Laureate is prevented from receiving the prize money due to imprisonment, the Board of the Nobel Foundation has previously decided that the Nobel Laureate may collect the money when he or she is released. In the case of Liu Xiaobo there is no information yet regarding the possibilities for him to receive the Nobel Peace Prize medal, diploma and the prize amount awarded to him in 2010.

The announcement of the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize is less than four months away. Has the work been going well? Will we have a Laureate(s) to announce on October 6th?

The work is proceeding according to plan and I am very confident that there will be something to report from Oslo that day.

 

註3

At the Nobel Prize Award Ceremony in Stockholm, Sweden, on 10 December, presentation speeches extoll the Nobel Laureates and their discovery or work, after which His Majesty the King of Sweden hands each Laureate a diploma and a medal. The event is followed by the Nobel Banquet, with 1,300 guests, held at the Blue Hall of the Stockholm City Hall since 1934.

In Oslo, Norway, the Nobel Peace Prize is presented by the Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee in the presence of Their Majesties the King and Queen of Norway, the Norwegian government, Storting representatives and an invited audience. Several hundred seats are reserved for persons with special reasons for wishing to attend the ceremony.

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