立場新聞 Stand News

葉劉低貶香港粵語為怪話,理應道歉

2017/12/3 — 19:05

葉劉淑儀

葉劉淑儀

English version below

立法會議員葉劉淑儀十一月二十五日在南華早報以英文發表文章「香港青年需要人幫其明解自己在中國未來的角色」,聲稱香港後生仔女抗拒中國皆因本地東西混雜文化(hyrbid culture)作祟, 尤其是香港粵語「怪話」(lingo)(注:根據 Merriam-Webster 字典, lingo 解「奇怪或不可理解的語言或說話:例如外語」) 。國歌法和廿三條都不足以解決這個問題。香港和北京當局應巧妙令香港青年視一帶一路和大灣區發展計劃為機遇。

葉劉淑儀顯然從中華人民共和國的角度撰文,志在磨滅香港身份特徵。 香港廣東話乃係優雅的混合語言(融和百越話、中原雅言、西洋借詞),可以追溯到先秦。中原歷代受北方夷族入侵,關山阻隔,香港粵語得以保留古漢音(粵語入聲字、合口音等)、古漢字(正體漢字及古字如juk1 㤢〔俗作郁,心動也〕、saai1㩄〔俗作嘥,浪費也〕、)、古漢詞(如「得閒」〔屈原山鬼:君思我兮不得閒〕、「後生」〔子曰:後生可畏〕)、古漢語法(如雙賓語序),古漢章法(四六成句,鏗鏘對偶,層層遞進,例如唐滌生《帝女花》上表一幕)。香港廣東話乃係香港人的命脈,近年香港政府以金錢資助,誘惑本地學校,以普通話教中文,令香港粵語受到嚴重威脅。國歌法支配香港人日常生活,例如無論何時何地,一聽見國歌,就要肅立敬禮,香港人一旦啃下,下一步就會係公共場合全用殘體字,然後大中小學嚴禁粵語,只容普通話,其次英文。

廣告

正如香港粵語吸納西方借詞及意識形態,香港文化有機融合東西方傳統,自成偉大文明,包括語言(香港粵語傳承華夏嶺南百越遺風;中英並舉)、共同血統(香港人祖先多為逃避中原暴政而來港開荒,富勇毅精神;有些港人更混有西洋血統,例如李小龍、何鴻燊、李嘉欣)、集體回憶(三年零八個月淪陷、五六十年代難民潮、六七暴動、七四廉政風暴、八九六四大遊行、九七主權移交、零三七一大遊行、一四雨傘革命、一六魚蛋革命等)、風俗習慣(宗教多元、毋須效忠任何政權;中秋重陽、聖誕復活,並行不悖)、價值倫理(儒家大仁、基督大愛、西方自由平等法治等觀念)等方面。 

葉劉淑儀一方面指責香港混合文化,使年青一代「情感語言既不屬中國,亦不屬西方」。另一方面,就指責香港青年一般「不肯越界」,與中華民族融合。簡直自相矛盾,皆因混合文化的定義正是文化越界。如今的衝突並非兩種文化對立,而係文明與野蠻不能共存。根據國際知名香港專欄作家陶傑(二零零一)的講法,「中共正是破壞華夏文化的大老粗」。三反五反、文革等政治運動,徹底剷除中國大陸的華夏文化。當代中國喪失華夏文化,又未能吸收西方典章文明,而香港則整合兩方優點。

廣告

香港的多元混合性質係祝福而非詛咒,例如倘無香港粵語文化,顧家輝不可能結合西洋流行曲及華南民歌風格,而寫出裴聲國際的粵語流行曲(今年七月,John Strauss交響樂團在荷蘭古城Maastricht,Vrijthof 廣場,演奏高唱顧家輝名曲上海灘,全場二萬五千觀眾動容);唐滌生、徐子郎亦不可能吸納西方電影元素及心理描寫,創作經典大戲帝女花及鳳閣恩仇未了情。 一帶一路及大灣區發展計劃純屬榨乾香港儲備和淹沒香港身份特徵的計謀(例如前民政事務局長何志平最近被美國警方拘捕,罪名係幫一帶一路公司賄賂非洲官員;港珠澳大橋超支百幾億,香港段成本漲到千幾億)。 香港廣東話為香港文明精華,當受宏揚尊重; 葉劉淑儀詆毀香港粵語為「怪話」,理應道歉。

 

Chapman Chen: Regina Yip,  Pls Apologize for Denigrating Hong Kong Cantonese

In her recent essay, "Hong Kong's Youth Need Help to See Themselves in China's Future", published in SCMP on 25 November, lawmaker Regina Yip asserts that young Hongkongers' resistance against and alienation from China is due to their hyrbid East-West culture, in particular, Hong Kong Cantonese as a "lingo". The National Anthem Law and National Security Law won't be enough to resolve that. The proper solution is for Hong Kong and Beijing authorities to make Hong Kong young people see the Belt and Road Initiative and the Greater Bay Area Development Plan as opportunities.

Regina Yip is apparently speaking from the point of view of China, aiming at obliterating Hongkongness. Hong Kong Cantonese is an elegant composite language that can be dated back to three thousand years ago. It is the lifeblood of Hongkongers and is now endangered by the HK Government's enticing with monetary subsidies local schools to teach the Chinese subject in Putonghua. Just like Hong Kong Cantonese assimilating Western loan words, Hong Kong culture organically merges Eastern and Western traditions to form a great civilization in itself, in terms of language, memories, common ancestry, blood ties, customs, values, etc. Its hybridity is a blessing rather than a cursing. The Belt and Road Initiative and the Greater Bay Area Development Plan are just projects for draining the reserve of HK and drowning Hongkongness. Hong Kong Cantonese, as the very core of Hongkongness, should be honoured and promoted rather than deprecated; Regina Yip had better apologize for bad-mouthing it.

"A unique Cantonese-based Hong Kong lingo permeates local life, rendering Hongkongers, especially young people who grew up after the reunification, almost a different people with their own values, predilections and habits of mind," says Regina Yip.

HK Cantonese as a Time-honoured, Elegant, and Composite Language

In reality, Cantonese is a time-honoured and refined language that can be dated back to the Spring and Autumn Period (771 to 476 BC). Owing to generations of separation by passes, fortresses, and mountains, Canton and Hong Kong have remained relatively unpolluted by Northern barbarians so that the periphery has actually retained classical Han pronunciation (e.g., checked-tone syllables ending in p, t, k, and lip-closing syllables ending in m), classical Han characters and phrases (like hau6-saang1 後生,meaning the young, which was often used by Confucius and other ancient sages), classical Han grammar (e.g., the double-object construction) and writing style (e.g, use of couplet and antithesis and progressive layers of meaning), and, ultimately, orthodox Chinese culture, all of which gradually became lost in the centre and are largely absent in Putonghua. During Britain's 150-year reign of Hong Kong, Cantonese was conserved rather than ruined, and it developed sturdily, absorbing Western loan words and concepts, and became together with English the de facto official spoken languages of Hong Kong.

The word "lingo", which is used by Regina Yip to call Hong Kong Cantonese, is a derogative term. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, lingo means "A strange or incomprehensible language or speech: such as... a foreign language". Regina Yip should apologize for denigrating the mother tongue of most Hongkongers.

Just like Hong Kong Cantonese combines Pak Yuet 百越 language, ancient Han language, and Western loan words, Hong Kong culture merges Southern China (Lingnam) culture, orthodox Han culture, and Western culture to form a great civilization of its own. Whether Hong Kong people constitute a people per se is controversial. But Hong Kong people at least comprise a distinct ethnic group. According to Susanne Reichl (2001), ethnicity is " the sense of identification of oneself or of others as belonging to a group of people who share (real or putative) common ancestry, language, blood ties, religion, customs, memories, and/or phenotypal features." Let us now examine these aspects of Hong Kong one by one.

Language

The mother tongue of most Hongkongers is standard Cantonese, while, due to nearly seventy years' coercive policy of using Putonghua as the teaching medium in Communist China schools has contaminated even the Cantonese in Canton. English is also one of the official language of Hong Kong, in contrast to China.

Common ancestry

The ancestors of most Hongkongers were refugees fleeing tyranny and political persecution on the Chinese Mainland.

Memories

The collective memories of Hongkongers, vastly different from China-people, include 150 years' British colonial rule of law, three years and eight months of Japanese occupation, influx of refugees from China in the 1950s and 1960s, 1967 Leftist Riots, 1.5 million-strong march in Hong Kong in support of the Tiananmen Square Student Movement in 1989, 1997 transfer of sovereignty, 500,000-strong march against the enactment of the national security law on July 1, 2003, 2014 Umbrella Revolution, 2016 Fish Ball Revolution, etc.

Religion and Customs

Hong Kong has enjoyed religious freedom and tolerance for 170 years. No religion in Hong Kong has to pledge allegiance to the Government or to any ruling regime. Taditional customs like Mid-Autumn Festival, Chung Yeung Festival, are also well preserved in Hong Kong.

Blood Ties and Phenotypal Features

The majority of Hongkongers are ethnic Chinese, but there are also other racial groups, including whites, Indians, Thais, etc. Some Hongkongers are mixed in blood and in physical features, like Bruce Lee, Stanley Ho, Michele Monique Reis.

Values

Hong Kong values include Confucian benevolence, Christian love, and Western ideas of freedom and equality.

The hyrbid culture of Hong Kong, epitomized by Hong Kong Cantonese art, is the key to Hong Kong's creativity and success. For example, according to the essay, "The 2011 New Song 'Brighten Me with Virtues", by Dr. C.H. Ng and Dr. Wong Chi-chung, the great HK singer and lyricist, "Sam Hui [1948-  ], with his bold infusion of local vernacular into western Rock and Pop music genres in the 1970s, literally created a new language of pop music." Similarly, the great Hong Kong composer, Joseph Koo (1933- ) combines Western pop style and traditional Chinese folklore style. "My compositions are actually best performed by a western orchestra because of the strong sense of rhythm in Canto-pop, something traditional Chinese music doesn't have," said Koo in 2008. The works of the great HK Cantonese opera composers, Dickson Tong 唐滌生 (1917-1959) and Chui Tsz-long徐子郎 (1936-1965), also assimilate Western musical arrangements and concepts into traditional Southern China opera.

On the one hand, Regina Yip blames the hybrid culture of HK for rendering the younger generation "emotionally and linguistically neither part of China nor part of the Western world". On the other hand, she blames the average Hong Kong youth for "their unwillingness to cross cultural borders" and merge with the China nation. This is self-contradictory for a hybrid culture is by definition culture-crossing. And the conflict in question is not a conflict between two cultures but a confrontation between civilization and barbarism. According to the internationally renowned HK columnist, Chip Tsao (2001), " The Chinese Communist Party is precisely a uncouth guy who destroys orthodox Chinese language and culture". The Three-anti Campaign (1951) , Five-anti Campaign (1952), Cultural Revolution (1967-1977), etc. have thoroughly uprooted orthodox Chinese culture on the Chinese Mainland. Contemporary China has lost orthodox Chinese culture and has never truly absorbed Western culture, while Hong Kong has integrated the virtues of both.

By alleging "While the older Chinese in Hong Kong – the immigrants from mainland China and the baby boomers – are far more attached to the mainland and comfortable with their Chinese cultural heritage, the younger generations" are "unable to connect with people from the mainland", Regina Yip also tries to alienate the pre-1997 HK generation from the post-1997 generation. In reality, the more mature Hongkongers, having witnessed the 1980s-Golden Era of Hong Kong, may be even more immersed in Hong Kong culture than the post-97 youngsters, many of whom have been taught the Chinese subject in Putonghua.

 

 

Since the 1997 handover, under pressure and encouragement from the Government, 70 percent of primary schools and 25 percent of secondary schools in HK have replaced Cantonese with Putonghua as the medium of instruction, particularly of Chinese as a subject. Prof. Robert Bauer (2000), an American expert in HK Cantonese, predicts that if this trend continues, the tradition of HK students reading written Chinese in Cantonese will vanish within a couple of decades; the publication of Cantonese works will shrink; educated and/or young Hongkongers will feel ashamed of speaking Cantonese in public. Cantonese will then become a sub-class and sub-culture language. And with the continuous influx of Putonghua-speaking immigrants from Communist China, HK Cantonese may even become extinct.

 

The Belt and Road Initiative and the Greater Bay Area Development Plan are opportunities for Hongkongers?

 

 

Former Hong Kong home secretary Patrick Ho were recently arrested in US over alleged Africa bribery scheme on behalf of a Chinese energy company linked to the Belt and Road Initiative. The Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macau mega bridge project has multiple problems affecting the Hong Kong section, including  the drifting of the artificial island, a one-year delay to the Hong Kong Link Road and HK$15 billion in cost overruns, which will push the final price tag for the Hong Kong section to HK$117 billion.

 

In conclusion, Hong Kong Cantonese, as the quintessence of Hongkongess, should be cherished and promoted rather than denigrated and damaged. In order to preserve and advance the real local culture and language, Hongkongers should initiate a local Han language movement, in which the Hong Kong Government's policy of enticing with money Hong Kong schools to teach the Chinese subject in Putonghua instead of Cantonese should be done away with. A new subject of Hong Kong Cantonese culture should be added to the curriculum of primary, secondary and tertiary schools here. Emphasis should be laid on the development of an elegant Hong Kong Han language, which organically combines classical Chinese, modern Chinese, and Cantonese, plus loan words from the West (The Elegant Cantonese Dictionary authored by Chapman Chen precisely serves this purpose). Hong Kong Cantonese opera and Cantonese opera film should also be restituted as a kind of fashion. And local film industry should be resuscitated, stressing a cross play of Hong Kong and Western characteristics, so as to re-open Western and Japanese markets.

 

 

 

 

發表意見