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「阻斷醫療」可構成戰爭罪行 人權法列明被捕者沒主動要求警方仍要保障其身體安全

2019/9/4 — 19:00

9.3 太子站

9.3 太子站

【文:腸】

根據國際人權法,任何人一旦被剝奪自由,落入警察手中,政府即負有嚴格的謹慎責任,須主動採取一切必須的措施保障該人的身體及性命安全,尤其不得限制被拘留者獲得治療的機會 [1]。此責任不因被拘留者沒有主動要求接受治療而減弱,因政權進行拘捕的行為,原則上已徹底承擔了妥善照顧被拘留者的生命和身體完整的責任 [2]。

事實上,即使在戰爭當中,「阻斷醫療」(即系統化並無差別地「蓄意不讓 [非直接參與戰鬥或失去戰鬥能力的] 敵方人員獲得救治」)以懲罰及迫使敵方屈服的策略,等同工具化敵方非戰鬥人員的基本人道需要,亦屬直接違反日內瓦四公約共同第3條 [3],並可能構成戰爭罪行 [4]。

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[1] 參見聯合國經濟、社會文化權利委員會,《第14號一般性意見(2000):享有能達到的最高健康標準的權利》(2000年8月11日)聯合國文件編號 E/C.12/2000 /4 第34段(「具體而言,各國有義務尊重健康權,特別是不能剝奪或限制所有人得到預防、治療和減輕痛苦的衛生服務的平等機會,包括囚犯和被拘留者 ... 」);United Nations Human Rights Committee, General comment No. 36 (2018) on article 6 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, on the right to life (30 October 2018) UN Doc CCPR/C/GC/36 at para 25 ('States parties also have a heightened duty of care to take any necessary measures to protect the lives of individuals deprived of their liberty by the State, since by arresting, detaining, imprisoning or otherwise depriving individuals of their liberty, States parties assume the responsibility to care for their life and bodily integrity ... The duty to protect the life of all detained individuals includes providing them with the necessary medical care and appropriately regular monitoring of their health ...')。

[2] 參見Lantsova v Russian Federation, Communication No 763/1997 (United Nations Human Rights Committee, 15 April 2002) UN Doc CCPR/C/74/D/763/1997 at para 9.2 
('The Committee affirms that it is incumbent on States to ensure the right of life of detainees, and not incumbent on the latter to request protection. ... Further, even if the Committee starts from the assertion of the State party that neither Mr. Lantsov himself nor his co-detainees had requested medical help in time, the essential fact remains that the State party by arresting and detaining individuals takes the responsibility to care for their life. ...')。

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[3] 聯合國人權理事會,《阿拉伯敘利亞共和國問題獨立國際調查委員會的報告》(2015年2月5日)聯合國文件編號 A/HRC/28/69 第76-77段、附件2第264段。

[4] 參見《國際刑事法院羅馬規約》第8條。

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