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也談羅爾斯

2015/1/5 — 12:42

網絡圖片:John Rawls

網絡圖片:John Rawls

據我大學教授說,羅爾斯為人跟他的文筆一樣木訥,不似去年情人節故世的Ronald Dworkin辯才無礙,而又辭采風流,寫得出這樣玲瓏的句子:「Without dignity our lives are only blinks of duration. But if we manage to lead a good life well, we create something more. We write a subscript to our mortality. We make our lives tiny diamonds in the cosmic sands.」但誠如羅爾斯云:「Justice is the first virtue of social institutions, as truth is of systems of thought.」文以載道,文字上乘不上乘,倒是末節了。

今日重讀羅爾斯一九六九年的論文《The Justification of Civil Disobedience》,發現有兩個論點常被高談公民抗命者所忽略。其一,是公民抗命的成功,端賴公民的正義感,若多數人缺乏奉行公義之心,抗命縱或合乎道德,卻注定徒勞,甚至適得其反:「When these assumptions fail the justifying conditions for civil disobedience are not affected, but the rationality of engaging in it certainly is. In this case, unless the costs of repressing civil dissent injures the economic self-interest (or whatever) of the majority, protest may simply make the position of the minority worse.」這樣的論斷,未嘗不是對過去三個多月的風風雨雨一道一針見血的註腳。林行止先生十二月十六日於《信報》發表的評論,持的也是類似的觀點。

其二,亦即學者政客不敢提、政府中央不願提的一處,就是公民抗命屢遭挫敗的後果:「By taking part in civil disobedient acts one does not foreswear indefinitely the idea of forceful resistance; for if the appeal against injustice is repeatedly denied, then the majority has declared its intention to invite submission or resistance and the latter may conceivably be justified even in a democratic regime. We are not required to acquiesce in the crushing of fundamental liberties by democratic majorities which have shown themselves blind to the principles of justice upon which justification of the constitution depends.」羅爾斯的意思是,即使在民主政體,假如抗命之舉長年不得回應,公民亦有起義的資格,何況抗命者眼前的,是不民主的香港?而佔中以來,鳩嗚不絕,花開遍地,心繫香港者,能不憂心如焚?

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梁振英說,沒有法治,香港將進入無政府狀態。摧毀法治,責任誰屬,不易判斷,畢竟在高牆和雞蛋間,羅爾斯似乎也浪漫得很不羅爾斯:「If legitimate civil disobedience seems to threaten civil peace, the responsibility falls not so much on those who protest as upon those whose abuse of authority and power justifies such opposition.」

羅爾斯的觀點,未必都是我的觀點,雖然我深信「哪裡有壓迫,哪裡就有反抗」,而且「世上沒有無緣無故的愛,也沒有無緣無故的恨」。幾星期前,讀完羅爾斯,在Page One咖啡室細閱Joseph Raz的《The Obligation to Obey: Revision and Tradition》,居然巧遇黃之鋒,他的支持者還要求我幫他們合照,亦算是理論與實踐結合的一段奇緣,遂筆以記之,立此存照,響應梁特反思號召,兼論羅爾斯種種。

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