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處理示威時的武力比例原則

2019/6/16 — 20:55

反送中 6.12佔領中的持槍警察

反送中 6.12佔領中的持槍警察

不時在新聞上提及的「最低適當武力」。其實在《國際人道法》也有提及 "Principle of Proportionality" ,應用於軍事上,就是要求行動時對平民造成最小程度的傷害,來限制對平民的潛在傷害。而當必須發生對平民的傷害時,這傷害需要與軍事優勢成比例 [1]

而根據「聯合國維和行動警察防暴隊政策 (2017) 」:

公共秩序管理 (Public order management - POM) 任務,包括人群和防暴控制,主要重點是讓人民在不受干擾或不合理阻礙的情況下行使基本權利,同時防止嚴重損害公共安全。 這種能力應在嚴格的人權法律框架內應用,僅在必要時使用武力,並在執行合法警察職能所需的範圍內,並始終遵守相稱原則 [2]

廣告

還有,何謂「防暴」警察,意思不是要防止暴動情況惡化, "de-escalate" the situation, 並嘗試把情況降溫嗎?

對方做出甚麼行為, 你的應對應該是與該行為相稱的。反觀網上片段、 照片,既有弱小女人走上前,在警察防護盾前理論,卻被警察用催淚彈的爆炸聲 「靠嚇」,又有記者在拍攝時,被警察用胡椒噴霧噴面,甚至射橡膠子彈。

廣告

這是適當武力,這是防止情況惡化嗎?怎麼看,這也是 「撩交打 (provocation) 」吧!

廣東話向來通俗、盞鬼,如果要用 6 個字形容,這正是大蝦細,俾 _ _  。

參考:

  1. Diakonia. (n.d.). Basic principles of IHL. Retrieved from https://www.diakonia.se/en/ihl/the-law/international-humanitarian-law-1/introduction-to-ihl/principles-of-international-law/
    "The principle of proportionality limits and protects potential harm to civilians by demanding that the least amount of harm is caused to civilians, and when harm to civilians must occur it needs be proportional to the military advantage."
  2. United Nations Police (n.d.). Policy on Formed Police Units in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations (2017). Retrieved from https://police.un.org/en/policy-formed-police-units-united-nations-peacekeeping-operations-2017
    Point 22
    "Public order management (POM) tasks, including crowd and riot control, can be performed within any of the above core functions of FPUs. The main focus of POM is to facilitate the population’s exercise of fundamental rights without disturbance or unjustified hindrance while preventing grave harm to public safety. This competence of FPUs shall be applied within strict human rights legal frameworks, using force only when necessary and to the extent required for the performance of legitimate police functions and adhering at all times to the principle of proportionality."

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