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顧問報告對三跑的意見

2015/10/19 — 10:52

機管局第三跑道網站〈三跑道系統〉短片截圖

機管局第三跑道網站〈三跑道系統〉短片截圖

機管局在 2008年曾聘請NATS Holdings “英國國家航空交通服務有限公司”為香港的空域和跑道容量(Airspace and Runway Capacity Analysis)做了四個顧問報告  ─  第1階段報告、第1a階段報告、第1b階段報告和第2階段報告。機管局基於其技術建議撰寫2011年發布的《香港國際機場2030規劃大綱》,從而建議興建三跑。

NATS

NATS Holdings(原為National Air Traffic Services),是英國主要的空中導航服務供應商。它是國際上重要的空中交通管理的顧問公司。
第1階段報告是有關如何有效利用二跑,達致每小時68架次飛機升降。
In Phase 1 of the Airspace & Runway Capacity Study, NATS identified the maximum potential capacity within the current constraints at and around Hong Kong International Airport, subject to the conditions identified in the report, to be 68 movements per hour.
第二階段報告是有關三跑。它提出了13個方案和另外3項詳細方案。在它的方案下,三跑應提供每小時102架次飛機升降。This indicated that Options P, R and S Extended (including a number of variants) appear to offer the maximum potential capacity gains, which amounts to around 102 movements per hour (34 additional movements per hour over the existing two runway capacity assessed in Phase 1 of the study).

廣告

“緊急離場程序”

其主要考慮是航道安全。當天氣惡劣,航機在著陸前一刻需要重新爬升,它需要轉向45度或135度離開(missed approach profile)。來港班機便會干擾了深玔機場的正常航道。平行跑道同步運作(SOIR,  Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near Parallel Instrument Runways) 是處理二條平行跑道的,三條近距離的平均跑道(香港情況)令問題更複雜。(in particular, the SOIR manual only addresses 2-runway operations, not 3-runway operations)

廣告

“標準離場程序”

機場為了簡化航機離境安排,航機在升空後以標準航道離境(Standard instrument departure, SID’s),之後才轉飛其目的地方向。在這段時間,機師只有權作少量修改航道,若偏離太多,便會出現危機。

“落地準備”

航機若採取較長的距離下降及準備著陸( long final ),可能需要8至10海里的距離。在香港,來自西南方的long final便有機會影響澳門的正常航道。

第二階段報告對空域和跑道容量的的建議如下:

5.2 空域和機場容量 
1.     所有的方案都會對空域帶來影響;
2.     第2階段報告的假設是,第一階段報告所建議的空域改善措施已經實施。第一階段改善可以看作一個獨立的項目。但開發一個涵蓋第一階段變化和修改珠三角空域安排的綜合方案會帶來更多好處;
3.     報告假設,修改珠三角空域方案已經到位,即香港的航空交通可以使用北部和西部空域,所有的進港/離港航班已與相鄰的機場(即澳門,珠海和深圳) 協調。
4.     報告假設,額外的導航系統(ATON )已按需要添加;
5.     沒有任何跑道建議因空域限制而被否定(例如,與深圳寶安國際機場的交叉跑道問題)。但部分跑道方案㑹影響操作可行性和架次飛機升降。
6.     在“平行跑道方案”中(現時的建議),在07號跑道(即向東北飛行的070度的跑道)來港方向班機,和25號跑道(即指向西南的250度的跑道)離港方向班機,會與澳門機場的飛機航道交疊。為了增加離港航班容量,需要增加更多飛向西面時,其交疊更甚;
7.     新的跑道越向西移,與澳門機場的飛機航道交疊越嚴重;
8.     北跑道的“緊急離場程序”航道㑹與深圳寶安國際機場的“標準升降航導”出現航道交疊;
9.     所有起飛往香港南面而使用向北或東北方向的飛機,必須飛在25跑道進場的飛機後面或上面,影響了來港飛機。
 
許多與第三條跑道相關的操作流程(如偏北的航道,07號跑道方向的“長距離(10海里)落地準備”和 “標準升降”後向北飛的航班等)都需要先修訂珠三角空域。報告假設這項修訂工作將與各項基建齊頭並進,以支持新跑道的啟用。這與本報告所說的增加架次飛機升降是必不可少的。如果沒有空域的變化,第三條跑道將不會增加架次飛機升降。 
 
5.2 Airspace & Airport Capacity
1.     All options can be considered to have some airspace implications;
2.     It has been assumed that the airspace changes recommended in the Phase 1 report have been implemented. This could have been implemented as a stand alone project, but there will be benefits in developing an integrated program covering the Phase 1 changes and the revisions to the PRD (Pearl River Delta ) airspace;
3.     It has been assumed that the proposed changes to the PRD airspace are in place i.e. that Hong Kong traffic can operate in the airspace to the north and west and that all new inbound/outbound routes to/from HK are integrated with adjacent airfields i.e. Macao, Zhuhai and Shenzhen.
4.     It is assumed that any additional navigation aids can be provided as and where necessary;
5.     No runway options have been rejected because of airspace issues, (e.g. the cross runway interaction with Shenzhen) but the issues have been noted and might impact on the operational acceptability and the eventual capacity.
6.     Parallel runway options have an interaction with Macau in the Runway 07 direction for arrivals and for departures from Runway 25, especially if additional SIDs (Standard Instrument Departure) to the West are included to improve the departure capacity of the airfield;
7.     The further west a proposed new runway is positioned, the interaction with Macau becomes more critical;
8.     The north runway missed approach profile creates an interaction with the Shenzhen circuit;
9.     Any SIDs to the North or North East used by aircraft departing to southerly destinations will have to route behind or above the approach sequence for Runway 25, creating an interaction with arriving traffic;
 
Many of the operational procedures associated with a third runway (such as a northerly circuit at Hong Kong, a long final in the Runway 07 direction and SIDs from Hong Kong routing to the North) are dependant on revisions to the PRD Airspace. It is assumed that this work will go hand in hand with the physical development of the airport infrastructure and that the airspace changes will be in place in a timely manner to support the opening of the new runway. This is considered to be essential in order to achieve the capacity increases identified in this report. Without the airspace changes, it is unlikely that the third runway will deliver any capacity increases over and above those identified in the Phase 1 report.
 
後記

政府以保密為由拒絕透露三方空域安排。顧問報告顯示,核心的空域問題出在香港、澳門和深圳之間。在三跑之下,它們都需要修改其標準起降程序( SID’s & STAR’s  )。

一個負責任的政府應該向公眾解釋2008年顧問所關注的第2、3、4、6、8和9點的進度,以釋疑慮。

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